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Lecture 11

SOC323-Lecture 11.docx

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Reza Barmaki

SOC323-Lecture 11 April 1, 2013 Corrections: what is it?  A) A subsystem of the criminal justice system  Correctional Institutions, courts, the police, jails, the public  B) A philosophy for responding to criminal offenders  Should we have death penalty? Should children be imprisoned?  C) A range of programs and services delivered in community  Probation: supervision of the offender in the community  Conditional sentence: less than two years/minimum risk  Conditional release: serving the remaining jail time in outside  Who Goes to Prison? Sentences of a term of two years or more  Who is Involved in Corrections?  Sanctioning; supervising; providing services  A) Carceral: inside institutions: offenders, judges, wardens, correctional officers, professionals….  B) Non-Carceral: outside institutions: probation officers, treatment & counseling, volunteers… The Legislative Framework of Corrections  Canadian charter of rights and freedoms (1982)  Defines rights and freedoms  Constitution act (1867)  Responsibilities of federal and provincial governments and their jurisdictions  Criminal code  Defines criminal offences, procedures for their prosecution and penalties  Corrections and conditional release act (1992)  For federal system of correctional facilities  International conventions  Corrections evolves:  Reflects interactions of social factor  Cultural, political, economic, religious  Severity of punishment  Explanations of criminal behaviour  Determine: number of prisoners Crime Rate in Canada  Ontario has the lowest crime rate  Northwest Territories has the most-more Aboriginal people, poorer provinces of Canada Kinds of Crimes Committed  Homicide the lowest in Canada  Administrative of justice is the highest-so high because we have so many of them Incarceration rate in Canada  Quite high incarceration rate  US not on chart because very high-2.3 million people in jail Length of Sentence  Try to limit the length of incarceration because too expensive  Many people try to limit the number of people incarcerated Ethnicity  66% -Caucasian-there a larger population, over-represented 2008-2009: CSC was responsible for  12,649 federally incarcerated offenders  498 (female)  2,445 (Aboriginal men)  About 1,200 (temporarily detained; conditional release to the community)  Including all admissions and releases: CSC managed a flow through of 25,500 difference offenders Alternatives to Confinement Community Corrections  Correctional programs & supervision of offenders in community  Point: to keep offenders from being incarcerated  1) Diversion  First-time, low-risk offenders  Objectives  a) No negative labeling & stigmatization  b) Reduction of unnecessary social control and coercion  c) Reduction of re-offending  d) Reduction of costs  2) Probation  For cases: no minimum penalty prescribed  Judge may order probation  Probation is the most frequently imposed sanction (especially in youth courts) 3) Intermediate Sanctions  A variety of correctional programs that fall between probation & incarceration  May include: fines, community service, home detention…  Objectives:  1) Offender oriented  Insuring punishment, retribution, relative incapacitation of the offender  2) System oriented  Lowering the cost and number of people
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