ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Simian

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27 Apr 2012
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Chapter 6 Notes: Primate Characteristics
Prosimians: Members of a suborder of Primates, the suborder Prosimii (pronounced "pro-sim´-ee-eye"). Traditionally, the
suborder includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers
Anthropoids: Members of a suborder of Primates, the suborder Anthropoidea (pronounced "ann-throw-poid´-ee-uh").
Traditionally, the suborder includes monkeys, apes, and humans
Primate Characteristics
Common traits: body hair, long gestation period after birth, mammary glands, different types of teeth, ability to matain body
temperature, increased brain size, ability to learn things
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Evolutionary Factors
Arboreal living
Adaptive niche: The entire way of life of an organism: where it lives, what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predators,
etc.
Over time diet shifted towards omnivory
New world primates: Mexico, Central America and parts of South Africa
Old world primates: Africa, India, Southeast asia
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Lemurs and lorises
Most primitive-they are more similar to earlier mammalian ancestors than are the other primates
Eyes are placed more to the sides of the face
Lemurs
Found only in the island of Madagascar
Eat wide variety of food
Most are arboreal but ring talied lemur are more terrestrial
Some arboreal species are quadrupeds and others (sifakas and indris ) are vertical clingers and leapers
Most lived in groups of 10-25 of both males and females
Indris lived in mated pair with children
Several nocturnal forms are solitary
Lorises
Were able to survive in mainland areas by becoming nocturnal while other prosiminans died out
At least 8 species found in India, Sri Lanka, Southeast asia and Africa
Alos included are 6-9 gaglago species-forest and woodland areas of the Sub-Saharan Africa
Some are slow climbing form of quadrupedalism,
Galagos are hihght agile vertical clingers and leapers
Some eat only insects, others eat fruits
Look for food alone unlike other primates
Femles leave infants in nest unil they are older
Tarsiers
5 species-island areas in southeast asia-tropical forests to backyard gardens
Nocturnal incectivores that leap from lower brances onto pray
Present complex blend of characteristics not seen in other primates
Huge eyes that cannot move in their socket, instead head turns 180
Anthropoids (Monkeys, Apes and Humans)
Larger body size
Larger brian
Reduced dependence on the sense so smell
Increased reliance on vision, with forward facing eyes at the front of the face
Greater degree of colour vision
Back of eye socket formed by a bony plate
Blood supply to brain different from other prosimians
Differences in female internal reproductive system
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