ANTB22H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Folivore, Fruit Tree, Prosimian

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27 Feb 2011
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Lecture 3 Jan.27.11
SLIDE DIETARY CATEGORIES:
Fruits
Leaves
Tree sap, gum
Animal prey (insects & vertebrates)
Insects
Varied diet
SLIDE PRIMATE DIETS & BODY SIZE:
Tend to be mostly insectivorous
Tend to be mostly folivorous
SLIDE MANY PRIMATES ARE MOSTLY FRUIGIVOROUS…:
Those that are small-to-medium sized also eat insects
Those that are medium-to-large sized also eat leaves
SLIDE MANY PRIMATES ARE MOSTLY FRUIGIVOROUS 2:
Kay’s threshold- 500 grams
oInsectivores tend to weigh less than this limit
oNo folivore is smaller than this weight (eg. howler monkey)
SLIDE PRIMATE FOODS:
Low in protein
Must travel farther to find it (means longer daily path lengths)
SLIDE PRIMATE FOODS 2:
Eating insects difficult to catch and they’re small!
Eating leaves (& shoots, buds) theyre a low-energy resource, so must eat a large
amount
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SLIDE ISSUES WITH FOLIVORY:
Secondary compounds (tannins, alkaloids) which give stomach aches, weird
stomach morphology
Gut microorganisms digest leaves for primates (animals that eat fruit dont have to
worry about this)
SLIDE GUT ADAPTATIONS:
Colobus, lepilemur, and macaca are leaf eaters
SLIDE DENTAL ADAPTATIONS:
Two on the left:
oFrugivore teeth:
Low, rounded cusps (helps to grind things)
Two on the right:
oFolivore teeth:
Sharp, shearing crests (cutting a paper with scissors)
SLIDE DENTAL ADAPTATIONS 2:
Papio:
oFruigivore teeth:
Large, broad
Alouatta:
oFolivore teeth:
Small, not as broad
SLIDE 2 FORMS OF COMPETITION:
Contest competition: when a resource can be monopolized (controlled) by a single
individual or group and can be fought over (eg. Fruit, and can also be used towards
sexual competition)
oHigh dominance status is a major benefit
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Document Summary

Those that are small-to-medium sized also eat insects. Those that are medium-to-large sized also eat leaves. Kay"s threshold - 500 grams: insectivores tend to weigh less than this limit, no folivore is smaller than this weight (eg. howler monkey)  must travel farther to find it (means longer daily path lengths)  eating insects difficult to catch and they"re small!  eating leaves (& shoots, buds) they"re a low-energy resource, so must eat a large amount www. notesolution. com.  secondary compounds (tannins, alkaloids)  which give stomach aches, weird stomach morphology.  gut microorganisms digest leaves for primates (animals that eat fruit don"t have to worry about this)  colobus, lepilemur, and macaca are leaf eaters.  sharp, shearing crests (cutting a paper with scissors)  scramble competition: when a resource is exploited by the individual which arrives and uses it first (eg. olw and grass, because grass is everywhere, very dispersed food situation.

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