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Tutorial 8 March 6.12.docx

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Alejandro Paz

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Tutorial 8 March 6, 2012
Slide 11: Markdness
- You can integrate more features of a marked variety or speech which has black indexicality in it
- Unmarked: variety or standard that is “dialed-down”
- Reinforcing difference
Banarsi Society
o English
o Hindus/Muslims
o Banarsi Muslims speak Urdu
o Language hierarchy
Hindi is better than speaking Urdu (Hindinizing their own language)
Paralleling different words
o Muslims think of Hindus as milk men thieves, due to religious observation
o Even though cultural division exists, there is still a sense of unity as “oneness”
o Two types of code-switching
Intra: end of sentence
Inter: phrases
o Use certain types of speech with different types of people
Manipulating speech through code-switching (Launderer)
Distinguishing between language choice and language function
Language rooted in historical origin
Banarsi Boli associated with uneducated women
Shalini Shankar: Indian Fobs
o Class distinctions between two groups: Fobs and Cooler People
o Caricatures
o Fobs would be on their own
o The way you spoke into new settlement
During prayers they would speak their own language
Distinguishing themselves from the popular kids by speaking Punjabi
School admin. Viewed fobs as unable to understand the English language, and to
be, ghettoizing themselves
“The Whiteness of Nerds”
o Hill billies considered a lesser groups of white
o Different types of whiteness
o Nerds only use super correct linguistic varieties by refusing slang = refusing coolness =
refusing blackness
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