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ANTC17H3 Lecture Notes - Spear-Thrower

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Genevieve Dewar

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Test: Picture of fossil specimen included. Indentify species,
time, location, nick-name
Anatomically Modern Humans
Globular skull, lack of occipital growth
Forehead and chin (Mental emulance, potentially related to
More gracile mandible, reduction of space for third molar
Mount Carmel in Israel; AMHS at base layers with
Neanderthals above them
Southwest Asia by 100kya
Australia by 60kya
Europe by 50kya and potentially North America
Time period
East Africa
195 kya
Show a chin, skull parts
Omo I
East Africa
Two specimens
Foreheads and chins
Sometimes called Homo sapiens idaltu
South Africa
Klasies River Mouth
AMHS Technology
Indication of human and Neanderthal similarities
First AMHS tool industry is very much the same as the Mousterian
tool industry (Called the Stillbay industry)
Massive explosion of culture 50kya in terms of artefact types
and evidence for abstract thought
Were able to do this before, physically and mentally, but
Culture as driving change
Genetic mutation caused the change in brain cognition
Potentially because of access to new foods like shell fish;
idea that we need fatty acids in diet to be capable of
cognition - doesn't transfer on to next generation, would
need constant supply of shellfish every day to be able to
Biological change as adaptation
Upper Paleaolithic Revolution
Upper Paleolithic Revolution
The List
Blade is a flake that is twice as long as it is wide
Increased efficiency in use of cobbles (30 feet of cutting edge v. 30, or 12, or 3)
Ie. Needles, tools for cutting wood, ability to engrave for non -functional
reasons, small scraper forms, ability to use other materials for weapons as well
(bone, wood, antler - Could be archaeological visibility)
Acts as a blank for a whole host of new tools
Bows and arrows, Atlatl, boomerangs
Ornate engraving on these items, patterns
Projectile Technology
Finely made tools based on blades
Deep sea fishing, shell fish, as well as small
Fish hooks, harpoons made of bone, ivory
Ornate engravings
Evidence for fishing and catching birds
Risk reduction technique
Evidence for long distance trade
Indication of self-identification
Potentially a cultural thing, but may have also had a functional use
Necklaces out of ostrich eggshell, shells, bone, seeds, strung on animal sinew
Carved disk 8cm in diameter; representative of a cow
Closer to 30kya, more 3D personal ornaments (ie. Bone pendants)
Systematic use of pigment , jewellery for self-ornamentation, non-utilitarian objects
Horses and cattle
Painting on the ceilings (common with most cave painting)
Little evidence of occupation within the caves
Lascaux Caves
Positive and negative hand imprints
Calendar, abstract thought?
Prominent patterns of finger dots and abstract shapes
Animals as well, but more humans being painted than animals
Positive and negative hand imprints
Prominent pattern of finger dots
Thought they were painted cave magic as a way to make them appear
Recent research indicates that it's a representation of the 'other world'
for shamens, and were entrance ways into the realms of the other
Debate on meaning
Southern Africa, found a pallette
Red and yellow ochre, Manganese dioxide for black paint
Finding of carving tools covering in ochre
Bone 'brushes' with hairs or grass stuck into nicks at the end
Art Supplies left over
Shading of images to indicate dimensionality
Followed by Sgraffitos which are scratches on bone or stone surfaces
Bas Relief in limestone
Leads to sculptures of venuses
Horse and Cow Polychrome
Cave Art
No faces, hands, feet
Well endowed, large hips, breasts, stomachs
Common traits
Made by pregnant women who are making them of themselves (hence
no feet, no face)
Luck charms
Earliest depiction of a human face
Unsure as to if the cross hatching is to indicate hair or netting headpiece
Venus Figurines
Extremely rare
Typicaly Therianthropes, men with animal bodies
Cat, bear costumes most common
Ivory painted with ochre
28cm high
Indication of tattoos?
Wearing an animal mask
Hohlenstien, Germany
Man wearing bear costume on Ivory plaque
Mas-d'Azil, France
Springbuck head and hooves but indication of a man
Potentially a depiction of a shamen entering the spirit world
Western Cape South Africa
Male Figures
Works of art
Evidence of music, instruments from bird bone
Game playing, music
Earliest undisputed burial with grave goods as Qafzeh, Isreal dated at 90kya
Indication of an afterlife?
Evidence for all above traits is found much earlier in Africa
Gradual accumulation of skills and culture over hundreds of thousands of
Indication of Continuity model
Neanderthal burials?
Elaborate burials
Anatomically Modern Humans
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