"made up" species; thought to be h. erectus in europe. Fits timeline to erectus, but thinks that there was too much time difference between the two. Primarily in spain; erectus in asia; ergaster in africa. Multiple models for how erectus eventually becomes humans. All archaics are capable of gene flow between groups. Criticized for traits only that fit his model. Mungo man (40kya) had mdna from a lineage with no descendants. Trinkhaus suggested that neanderthal traits were passed to europeans. If there is only one source of h. sapiens there would be a genetic bottleneck. African eve study; study to show lineages and population movement. Link to lineage 1 in africa which then spread in different ways. Genetics: humans are more similar to each other than the neanderthals. Out of variability range based on common ancestor at 300-800kya. Originally considered to be two "types" of neanderthals, but they chronologically overlap. More likely it"s warming hot air when breathing out.