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Lecture 6

ANTA01 - Lecture 6.docx
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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
ANTA01 – Week 6 – October 18, 2012 - We are trying to figure out the in-between from australopithecine to homo Asian, European or African Origins - Darwin & Africa o He was pretty sure people evolved and they had evolved in Africa o Africa because he found that chimps and gorillas were in Africa, where as Orangutans were in Asia o They had an interest to find fossils - Dubois & Java man (The first know homo erectus) o They had an interest to finding the missing link o So they travelled to Asia o The people who went to Asia found part of a skull and a femur of “Java man” - Europe & Piltdown man o Was a hoax bone fragment Olduvai Gorge & Early Homo - Leakey’s Louis and Mary - 7 m below bed ! (2.1 – 1.7 mya) - Dear Boy (OH5+) tools and animal bones - Beds 1 & 11 – Homo habilis - In between form of Australopithecines and Homo Erectus - Studies of hand bones – precision - OH24 “Twiggy” & OH5 “Dear Boy” o Dear Boy has a Sagittal crest o Twiggy does not have a Sagittal crest  Looks more gracile/ graceful Olduvai early Homo compared to Australopithecines - Reduced size of back teeth – but still capable of dealing with rough foods (nuts) - Anterior teeth larger - More generalized Diet and more human- like - No Sagittal crest - Larger brains, - 560 – 650 cc, requiring meat to sustain - Based on teeth and skull more human like Olduvai early Homo compared to Homo erectus - Much smaller brain - Maintains ape body proportions of : o Long arms & short legs - Length of arms suggest arboreal lifestyle? - More primitive Early Homo in South Africa Swartkrans - Member 1 – p robutus - Member 1 & 2 1.5 MYA, -p. robutus and early homo Sterkfontein Member 5 1.5-22MYA, -P robutus, early homo & many stone tools - Some researchers are strong believers that are actually homo erectus others think A. africanus? Who is early Homo? Two species? - Sexual dimorphism or two different species? - Homo habilis (KMN-ER 1813) - Homo rudolffensis (KMN-ER 1470) o Twice the size of KMN-ER1813 Homo rudolensis - Olduvai Gorge and Koobi For a - Rudolfensis may have had more human – like body Would the real ancestor stand up ? - If they were in some ways more primitive than australopithecines? Who was the ancestor of Homo erectus? Homo erectus: first true Homo? - Homo erectus - Truly larger brains - Advanced tool use - Longer legs than arms - Human-like teeth and jaws Oldewan Industry - First at Olduvai Gorge - 7m below Bed 1 (2.1 – 1.7 mya) - Early Homo, P. boisei, Homo erectus - Oldest are 2.5 MYA from Hadar (Where Lucy comes from) - Microscopic wear patterns show they were used for cutting grasses, meeat and wood “Simple tool technology” - Hard hammer - Direct percussion - Least effort strategy to produce sharp edges - Original though – core tools choppers, scrapers - Now – Flakes as sharp edges too Primates and Tool-Use - Tai Forset, Ivory Coast - Hammer and anvil techniques used to crac
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