Essay Guidelines (ANTA01H3)
One of the goals in any writing assignment is to see how well you follow instructions. A
part of your grade will depend, therefore, on how faithfully you follow these guidelines. In
general it is a good idea to make reference to the (attached) Essay Evaluation Guide, which
provides you with some indication of the criteria that we will be using to determine your grade.
Layout and Length: Papers should be preceded with a cover page that includes (at least) the
following: the course and section (ANTA01 Lec 01), your name, your student number, the essay
title, the instructor’s name, and the date due. This cover page does not count towards the page or
word limit. The acceptable length for essays in this course is 6-10 full pages, including
everything apart from the cover page (e.g., references, tables, figures, etc.). 5% will be
deducted for each page or part thereof under 6 pages or over 10 pages. All essays must be typed
or word-processed, double-spaced with 1” margins and a font size of 12. All parts of the essay,
including references, tables, and figure legends must be double-spaced.
Content: Your paper should include clearly demarcated Introduction and Conclusions
sections. As noted on the Essay Evaluation Guide, a percentage of your grade will be based
directly on the content in these sections. The use of other subheadings is at your discretion.
Subheadings can be a good way of clarifying the structure of your essay for both you and the
References: EVERYTHING YOU GET FROM ANYWHERE MUST ALWAYS BE
REFERENCED!!! Come and talk me if you aren’t sure what this means. References should be
cited in the text by giving the name(s) of the author and year at the end of the section the
reference applies to. If a paper has more than two authors, cite it by the first author name and
then “et al.” Page numbers should not be given unless you are referencing a quotation. For
papers with more than two authors, the names of all authors must be given in the references cited
The ear morphology of Ignacius graybullianus is supportive of a close relationship to
euprimates, rather than dermopterans (Bloch and Silcox, 2001).
Chronolestes simul is best considered a basal plesiadapoid, not a crown group carpolestid (Silcox
et al., 2001).
In the case of a quotation, the reference should be placed at the end of the quotation, with
the addition of the relevant page numbers. For example:
“The simple presence of an entotympanic is also unlikely to be a synapomorphy linking
dermopterans and paromomyids to the exclusion of other archontans.” (Bloch and Silcox, 2001,
1 Web pages should be referenced similarly, but including the author of the webpage (if
provided), the date the page was most recently updated (if provided), and the name of the
webpage. For example:
All mammals have hair at some point in their development (Myers, Class Mammalia, Animal
DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES—USE OF THESE REFERENCING
METHODS WILL BE PENALIZED.
Your paper must include a section entitled “References Cited”, which should include all
the sources referenced in your essay, listed in alphabetical order by the first letter of the first
authors’ last name. Do not number the references listed in this section. Do not include papers
unless they are explicitly referenced in the text. Follow these examples as to how references
should be formatted in your References Cited section. Marks will be deducted for deviations
from these styles.
An article from a journal:
Asfaw, B. 1987. The Belohdelie frontal: new evidence of early hominid cranial morphology
from the Afar of Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution 16: 611-624.
Leakey, M.G. and Harris, J.M. 2002. Lothagam: The Dawn of Humanity. New York: Columbia
An article in an edited volume:
Oates, J.F. 1994. The natural history of African colobines. Pp. 75-128 in A.G. Davis and J.F.
Oates, Eds. Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
An abstract in an abstract volume:
Baker, E.W., Malyango, A.A. and Harrison, T. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships and functional
morphology of the distal humerus from Kanapoi, Kenya. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 26 (Suppl.): 66.
An unpublished PhD dissertation:
Kirkpatrick, R.C. 1996. Ecology and behavior of the Yunnan snub-nosed langur (Rhinocolobus
bieti, Colobinae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California.
2 A web page:
Wund, M. and Myers, P. 2005. Mammalia, Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 10, 2010
If no author is provided for a web-page, substitute the name of the webpage for the author
in your in-text referencing, and alphabetize with respect to that name in your references cited list.
Suggested sources: The following journals can be good starting points for researching your
essay. All are available through the University Library Portal
Journal of Human Evolution
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
American Journal of Human Biology
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
It is recommended that you use peer reviewed journal articles as your main sources of
information for your essay. Secondary and tertiary sources such as newspapers, ency