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ANTA01 - Day 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mary Silcox

ANTA01 – Day 3  Primate features  Overview of living non-human primates  Non-human primate models for human behaviour Primate features  Grasping extremities  Opposable thumb (digit), big toe. Like a squirrel, all their toes are lined up.  Nails instead of claws  Relatively large brain (on average)  Humans have the largest brain relative to body mass amongst mammals  Eye directed organism  Improvement of visual features at the expense of the nose  Stereoscopic vision – cones of vision overlaps  Animals like horse can gauge distance called parallax  Brain can figure out the distance from eyes to point B  The further the eyes are away from each other, the stronger the parallax is  Postorbital bar – a bar of bone in the back of orbit. Protect the eye from the muscles responsible for chewing. Stops the eye from moving when we chew  Eat a lot of fruit (also insect, leaves)  Mostly arboreal, living in tropical forests, exactly where humans are deforesting  Mostly equatorial  Extended life history traits  Long gestation (pregnancy)  Long period of infant dependency, 8 years for orangutan  K selected relative to other mammals o K-selected: “an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring, in whom they invest increased parental care.” o Ex., humans o If something happens, the endangerment rate is high and sensitive o R-selected “a reproductive strategy that emphasizes relatively large numbers of offspring and reduced parental care” - Lewis et al., p. 159 o Ex., wind pollinated plants, rats Overview of living non-human primates  Splits primates into 2 main subgroups (suborders)  Order -> suborder ->infraorder -> superfamily -> family  Prosimii vs. Anthropoidea  Prosimii  4 livings groups (most known is the lemur)  All living lemurs live in Madagascar, off east coast of Africa  Quite difficult to get from Madagascar to Africa  Before humans got there 2500 years ago, no anthropoidea made it there  An adaptive radiation of primates  LEMUR (Coquerel’s Sifaka) specialized for vertical clinging and leaping – very long hind legs  Ring-tailed lemurs – more terrestrial than other lemurs – mostly diurnal – active at night (cathermeral – sometimes actives at night)  Mouse lemurs – smallest living primates – nocturnal, to avoid predators, subject to predation  Aye-aye (lemur) – largest living nocturnal primate – third finger on hand is very large and skeletal. WOODPECKERS FILLED THIS NICHE o Endangered o No natural predators  LORIS (potto)  Prosimii do different things  Move very slowly  Nocturnal  Live in Africa and Asia  Tend to be poisonous  GALAGO (lesser bush baby)  Specialized for vertical clinger and leaper  Nocturnal Africa  TARSIER 
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