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Lecture on The Americas

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

The AmericasoActual villageclear site that ppl livedoWhy are we picking up ppl in Chileleads long standing theory was that Asian migrants moved into the Americas in numerous waves along the to coast route ideaBering Straight land bridge and through ice free Old croakYukoncorridoroOn river bank found broken mammoth bonesoProblem mammoth could have die during periods of glaciationssomewhere else and the bones could have following herds of mammoths and other large washed to the coast may not be where there animalsroughly 12 to 13 kyawas an actual familylarge groups of ppl that colonized quicklyCoastal RoutesThe Bering land bridge during glacial maximumDuring glaciations the continental shelf was exposedThe modern coastline was inlandTherefore coastal sites may be present hundreds of meters below waterFedjeJosenhans found stone artifacts that due to 10kya 53m below the OceanMore evidence suggesting coast idea than bridgeSkeletal MaterialSmall sample with only 30 individuals 8500kyaOldest are around 11ky old and Kennewick man is 9ky oldModern Native Americans share many similarities with modern ppl from Northeast AsiaBut the earliest Native Americans do not share traits with either the modern groupspoles covered in iceKennewick man Colorado riverwhich ever reduced water levelreligion he was it will give that religion the right of landproblem is how are ppl and animals getting over iceice frees corridorsassumptionLooks like European artist interpretationNew ideasShape of teeth common in native America and Asianumerous early sites suggest that perhaps the MtDNAAmericas were inhabited much earliermtDNA study20 to 50kyathere are 5 haplogroups A B C DX in North Following the coastline instead of the land bridgeAmerican and all haplogroups are found in northeast What does that archaeology suggestAsiaPpl using boats to follow coast linethe amount of genetic similarity suggest a split 25 to 20kya between Native Americans and Asians from As water melts coastlines from before are submergedthe lake Baikal RegionSiberiamultiple waves of movementIf Asian migrants travelled across the Bering land bridge when was Siberia inhabited20 and 25000 years ago splitPaleoIndiansEarliest sites at 27kya due to inhospitable environment flourishing at 18ya and again at 13kyaby 12kya first truly successful groupsThey hunted wooly mammoth bison and reindeerclovis points were haftedSimilar tool industries between Siberia and America hunted wooly mammoths and other large gamebut with some time lagdrove them over cliffsTools in Siberia and NA are similar and were lived in a range of habitats and spread quicklyhunting the same speciesDid they over hunt mega faunaSitesLook like sutrean industry toolsBluefish Caves near Beringia 15 to 13kyaHunted same species as SiberiaMeadowcroft Rockshelter near Pittsburgh 10002000 years ago able to conquer NAAnd SAPennsylvania 12 800 yaThe Holocene10 000yaTopper in South Carolina artifacts below the Clovis General warming of worlds climatedeposit date to 20 kya and charcoal to 50kyaReceding glaciers and raising sea levelsdrowning oWhole range of datesstcoastlineso1 tools lack certain traitsmaybe rocks General environmental change including the falling on top of each otherresolution of the seasons in northern climatesndo2 could be forest fire50kya unclearMovement of vegetation types increased diversityMonte Verde Chile range from 13 500 to 11800yaUp until now we are in the Pliocene age ice age
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