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anta01 lecture notes part 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Emma Humphrey

Week 8Early Hominid EvolutionsThe First BipedsJune 22 2010noncumulative final exam but know the dating technique the skeleton it is impt for the second part of the course2 general models1 large brain predominant model2 more correct model bc of fossil records8myagenetic split but only shows in fossil record 5myaMajor climatic changes in late Miocene1 drying up of mediterranean seamovement of Africa northward has closed up the water and thus drying of mediterranean seaIndia pushing up to South West Asia created the HimalayasSouth America going northward closed the sea currents cooling the temp created an environment with ice caps forming in polar regions ie glacier possibilitiesthus dryer environment increased size of Sahara desert in Africa2 breaking up forestscreating of the East Valley in Africa3 these two aforementioned changes created mosaic environmentmoving out of the treed environmentso not entirely terrestrial or arboreal treed environPossible models to explain1Carrying Model gather and transport of food males bringing supplies to femalesthe more bipedal the most successful theyll be reproductively2 Vigilance Model see over barriers to find food see dangercould just require an upright posture3 Heat Dissipation Model To cope with heat stress out in the openupright stance helps cool the body faster so only top of head etc only affected by sunif quadrapedal whole back etc will be affected by sun4Energy Efficient Model Bipedalism is far more economical than quadrupedal locomotion at walking speedlong steady walking bipedally vs chimps walking bipedally for short periods5ForagingHarvesting Model standing upright to reach food in branchesties closely with carrying modelallows us to do two activities at oncereaching seeds from tall grassesget food from tall bushes6
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