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anta01 lecture notes part 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Emma Humphrey

Lecture 1 May 4read ch 1observations then generalizationsgeneralizations based on the observationsand hypothesis based on ththypothesis vs theory hypothesislimited statements regarding cause and effect refers to our state of knowledge before testingtakes placetheorygroups of hypotheses confirmed thru repeated tests and observationsLecture 2 May 11read ch 23Before evolutionArchbishop James Ussherconcluded earth created 4004 BC Oct 239amChain of being Greek philosophy humans had the most essence given by GodGod created variationsextinction cld not happenthEnlightenment 18 century 1700schanges thought abt chain of beingppl began questioning bible and creation etc by examining natural worldRobert Hooke fascinated by fossilsBIOLOGYCarolus LinnaeusSwedish natural scientistcreationisttaxonomyclassification on differencessimilaritiesagainst evolution but precipitated evolutionGod created differencesGenusspecies not capitalized eg Homo sapienscomparative anatomy when things kind of look the sameanalogous structure similar bc of environment not related through ancestryeg Birds and bats have wings bc of environment to fly but not related to common ancestorLinnaeus system Humans are in same order as primates eg monkeys apes lemursunchangeable organisms fixed and created by GodKingdom animalia all animalsPhylumchordata animals that have vertebraeClassmammaliaanimals w vertebrae and certain characteristics ie sweat glandsOrder carnivora vertebrae mammal traits and mainly meateatersFelidae cats Canidae caninesUrisdae bearsGEOLOGYCatastrophist ppl that believe that earth changes bc of multitude of catastrophic eventsie earthquakesnatural but divine in nature ie Noahs floodGeorge Cuvier opposed evolutionobserved strata singular stratumUnitarianism Buffon Hutton Lyellgradual processes that accounted for changes overtimeGeorge Buffon repeated uniform processesJames Hutton slowacting processes of erosioncan time it and find age of the earth different from Usshers methodhis work largely ignoredCharles Lyell earth constantly shaped by natural forcesSetting stage for evolutionEvolutionbio changeLamarck French naturalistprogressioninheritance of acquired characteristicsaffected and thus adapted by environment This is correct Animals and species adapt to environmentbut he is wrong to say adaptation is progressive more complex more perfectdidnt believe in extinction they just changed so much to adapthe believed mechanism for change by inheritance of acquired characteristicsgiraffe eg they transfer their long necks by stretching necks to their babies so adapt in their life and transfer this adaptation on their offspringthis is incorrect bc traits are not acquired ie body building doesnt give offspring bulging muscles DarwinWallace2 key points 1 they noted that all organisms within a species show variation bw individuals2 they looked at Linnaeus scheme of classification not only species classification shows similaritiesdifferences but also biological closenessDarwin father of evolutionconcept of natural selectionbased on the notion that organisms are adapted to their environ and undergo adaptive change when their environ changes not directive ie not progressiveas environments change variation wi a pop allowed organisms to adapt
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