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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01 CLASS 10 Nov 22 2011 COLONIZATION OF THE AMERICASAGRICULTURE THE AMERICASLong standing theory was that Asian migrants moved into the Americas in numerous waves along the Bering Strait land bridge and through ice free corridorDuring periods of glaciationsFollowing herds of mammoths and other large animalsRoughly 1213kya NEW IDEASNumerous early sites suggest that perhaps the Americas were inhabited much earlier2050kyaFollowing the coastline instead of the land bridgeArchaeology suggests that they used boats and didnt walk on the bridgeSIBERIAIf Asian migrants travelled across the Bering land bridge when was Siberia inhabitedEarliest sites at 27kya due to inhospitable environment flourishing at 18 kya and again at 13 kyaThey hunted wooly mammoth bison and reindeerSimilar tool industries between Siberia and America but with some time lagSITESBluefish Caves near Beringia 1513kyaMeadowcroft Rockshelter near Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 128 kyaTopper in South Carolina artifacts below the Clovis deposit date to 20kya and charcoal to 50kyaMonte Verde Chile Range from 135118 kyaTools lacked traits that the tool was deliberately made TopperCharcoalCOASTAL ROUTESDuring glaciations the continental shelf was exposedThe modern coastline was inlandTherefore coastal sites may be present hundreds of meters below waterFedje and Josenhans found stone artifacts that date to 10 kya 53m below the oceanSKELETAL MATERIALSmall sample with only 30 individuals8500yaOldest are around 11ky old and Kennewick man is 9ky oldModern Native Americans share many similarities with modern people from Northeast AsiaBut the earliest Native Americans dont share traits with either of the moderns groups
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