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Bianca Dahl

Lecture 8 – November 5 , 2012 Why Anthropologists stopped drawing kinship charts (and then started up again) Kinship and Relatedness -most important topic of ANT systems on how ppl are related to each other (family/extended family) -starting principle: human experiences like sexuality, conception, birth and nurturance are selectively interpreted and shaped in shared cultural practices that ANT called relatedness (umbrella term) -bond of friendships, marriage etc. -early focus on “shared substances” that define kinship --ex. Blood, made from same elemental stuff --these shared substances could be DNA, semen, breast milk --more societies WW believe that those who share substances are related in systematic ways --brother, sister, cousin etc -assumptom: that all societies “reckon” kinship based on biology (reduction) --early idea: just look at bio to understand it --some people say intercourse is part of kinship = sperm swimming to egg (where birth is created) --thought, everyone thought of reproduction the same way (women/man, sex/sperm/egg) Two big realizations 1. often ppl’s own understandings of their relatedness are at odds with genealogical connections we westerners might consider important or true 2. Western ideas of genealogical relationships are deeply cultural as well -why we look at kinship, stopped drawing charts, and then again -need to start from very beginning to understand kinship kinship chart ego- yourself, person drawing chart kinship calculation: the system by which people in society reckon (calculate, name) kinship relationships -where do you draw the line in relationships? -must pay attention to the words in each language can predict other social structures -look at extended family networks ex. Uncle, can tell difference between mother and fathers brother in different lang (botswana) why? b/c there is a different type of relationship between you and your mom’s brother and your dads brother Genealogical kin types: are an “actual” genealogical relationships (mother’s brother/ father’s brother) -father, mother, brother, sister -kinship terminology: words used fro different relatives in particular language (uncle, oncle) Anthro shorthand: “First cousin” MBS MBD MZS MZD FBS FBD FZS FZD * 8 different first cousins, but all the same name, COUSIN Once removed = what generation they were born in. learn in tutorial -kinship isn’t always about strict biology. Have language that describes these things -about marriage Kinship= important as idiom (metaphor)AND as social organization -kinship is a way of talking about social relationships (FBexW – fathers brothers ex wife, still an aunt?) -also to denote respect (mothers friend) -but won’t call random stranger your aunt/uncle (your parents are more intimate, thus call their friends aunt/uncle) -allow us to assign one another group membership: -tells us about marriage/partnering, mating, birth and nurturance -nurturance: see idioms, those that raise you (ex aunt, call them mom) know what biologicalness, but are commenting on socialness important issues: -how to carry out the reproduction of legitimate group members (marriage/adoption) -where group members should live after marriage (residence rules) -how to establish link between generations (descent) -how to pass on positions in society (succession) or material goods (inheritance) -marriage, descent, adoption =selective processes *really just think about biology and social sperm -people recognize reproduction differently (sex, the stork) -biology: sperm and egg comes together to form an embryo not all cultural groups believe that is what happens, not all cultural groups care about the egg and sperm -some societies believe that embryo must be fed by a lot sperm in order to have children (ex. Have lots of having sex, or baby isn’t going to grow) Bari “partible paternity” -believe fertilization isn’t a one time event -one then more man can contribute to the growing of an embryo -when child is born, mother names all those included she had sex with that could be the father, and if they accept, father’s need to give care to mother and child -those with two/more dads more likely to survive to adulthood -65% survives to adulthood those with one dad makes sense, b/c lots of stress etc -kinship makes snese to biological problems marriage =kinship, involves usually no prior existing kinship Consanguines/affines (blood relation) / (in-laws- ppl related by marriage) -these become important b/c kinships isn’t just about who cares for the kid, or special names for different relatives -often time ppl who are related get inheritance -In popular culture: there are different emotional ties between consanguines and affines think about adult life -who do you think adult should have closer relationships with? Own sibling or mother in law? own sibling -why are adults suppose to have closer relationships with siblings vs. affines?  known siblings for whole life, thus if you divorce lose the in -laws if you need an organ, they have the same blood type Iteso Kinship relations Descent: a group that claims to have ancestors in common (up the kinship chart) Descent important b/c associated with inheritance. Ex. Who gets to have the stuff Iteso: patrilineal = consanguines fight, affines are harmonious guys usually get all the stuff -the brothers are in competition with resources, and better with inlaws b/c they don’t inherent anything from them. Relatedness is compl
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