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Lecture 4

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Anthro Lecture 4 2/2/2012 12:59:00 PM The way we turn to biology to explain things is part of our world view  Its unique  When we say it natural it means that its biological  Feeding desires they know the biology but they don’t know what’s natural they don’t call biology  They sort of relied on gods will to explain what is natural Cultural constructionism: Human behavior and ideas are best explained as the results of culturally shaped learning  One of the key question that shapes anthropology is why people became the way we did  This theory key to answer the question  Opposite of cultural construction is biological determinism  Most important contribution is how it shapes human behaviors  Biological determinism: biological features such as genes or hormones are used to explain behaviors an ideas  Example, alcoholism or teenage stress  Men have better spcial skills  Spcial skills are culturally and men are better able to learn that through culture  Many are opposed to biological determinism Social, cultural constructs Social construct: is a concepts or practice that is seen as natural common sense, essential, timeless, or god given but which is really an invention an artifact of a particular culture  Taking for granted is sort of naturals  Social constructs are produced through human behavior and actions  Men are like this and women are like that is an example  Social and culture constructs are results of human choices  Social constructs help to build our world view  Allows how are world view is constructed? o Socially constructed reality is on going process it is not static, it is being produced and reproduced through our actions o Knowledge is not just out there for us to learn rather all knowledge is dirved by social interactions  Shifts the we think about the objective knowledge Gender as a cultural constructs  Gender is most common and most for granted  All culture divide their population into at least 2 catagories  All culture uses ages to social catagories they are different in every different way  Natural way of catorgizing people in two  Two difference between sex and gender  Sex: Difined and biological catagories Sex refers to biological categories (male and female) determine by genital, chromosomal and hormonal differences always call them males and female o Sex is biological difference between males and female o Gender is social and culturel significance in male and female which is contributed to everyday life  When socializing you start to see men and women  Gender refers to patterns of culturally constructed and learned behaviours and ideas attributed to men and women  Exmple, sowing is womens work in the waste and in many part of the world men sow not women Anthroplogy and gender  Early anthropologist ignored “gender” assumed mens lives were the cultreal norm  They never saw gender when they looked at cutlrue and that is because they were mostly men and they mostly hung out with men and what was masculan is the whole picture  But a corss cultural prerspective challenges the ideas that gener is natural because genders is varibles corss cultural o When they started to pay attention to women, they saw that they their actions were different and so they can t predict what women to by looking at women o This happens in every cutlrual  Gender and sex do not correlate naturally but culturally o It is very hard to find that What do we take for granted between men and women stero type ? Men  Atheletic, their biology  More aggressive  Rational  Men are the provider  Men are more promiscuous  Physical stronger  Women  Muilti tasker, partly because we have children and we have to take car eof them and everyone else  Women are more emotional  Passive  Nurtures  Support These ar the things that we take forgranted, The Sambia of Papua New Guniea  They live in up in the mountains and fairly isolated  We naturally think that boys will become and girls will become women  Easy to maintain gender, because you are bron into it  This is different in Samia. Boys do not naturally become men they need help o Ones masulaty is always under threat o Sambia men traditionally valiant warriors and they that was their main part of being men o They always had war between their nebiouring village  Boy live with their mo
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