ANTB21 – LECTURE 4
RITUAL: language plays a key role in establishing a ritual.
Continued from last week
Performativity: language and the use of language helps to constitute the world. Austin
described ritual events – marriage, making a promise also has a ritual aspect to it.
Relationship between ritual and performativity has a key significant rather than
displaying or explaining concept
Complexity of ritual – key to our lives which enables the ritual to perceive
****Midterm on October 8 , office hours: 1.30 – 3.30 MW 372 but this week 2-4pm
** 50 mins long. Part 1: identification – identify 3 terms out of 6. Discuss definition +
example of why that concept is important (3 * 13 = 39 marks) Part 2: answer 1 of the
following 3 questions. Be sure to include at least one relevant example from lecture,
tutorial, or the readings
Ex. Of definition index- one of the 3 Sossure talks about – tries to get at the textual
nature of language. – I’m here, she’s there. Referencial ideology is an example of essay
question. – write 3 paragraphs – definition,+ intro, how does it relate to the world, +
For historical reasons, a referentialist ideology has been a major assumption in the
scholarly study of language.
The referentialist ideology as part of the set of assumptions that go into a football
metaphor of communication has been critiqued on many grounds.
A speaker is constituted before they speak – important notion for performativity. The
way that you speak creates you a certain speaking subject
The term [ppt]
Even for describing performativity English speaking societies, Speech act theory
contained problems: undue emphasis on explicit, primary performative formulation.
Significantly, many verbs in English that describes an action, even on the grounds on
which the performativity theory was elaborated it doesn’t work. Many paradigmatic
examples used in Speech act theory were taken from highly-ritualized contexts
Linguistic anthropological approaches (e.g. Rosaldo) to performativity discovered that
Speech act theory – ppt
Speech act theory critic:
This theory challeneged many of the ideology of referential ideology. Refer to the
therapeutic example of Tony. – why is a problem that you can see that words come from
Speech act theory suggests that if you want to do something and you find the word
‘promise” – these words came from that person who was speaking
Tony: They are kind of from him and they are kind of not – taking the action and putting
it into words and finding the perfect verb
Michelle Z. Rosaldo on Ilongot Speech Acts – looking at a very different kind of society.
Sweden agriculturalist – describing the Ilongot Social Wrold – lacking such institution
as the office, church or court, most Ilongot social life took place within large one room
houses. . ppt Presumes a Western idea of personhood: - individual, apart from social ties, intention
comes from an interior self, Agency )ability to carry something out) is understood
theough interior self, also location of responsibility.
Explicit performative is the paradigm speech act. Opinion- the idea that we have, not
based on scientific knowledge. Individual ideas that ar disconnected from social
As you’re responsible for you’re actions, you’re also responsible for what you’re saying.
No notion of “intention from an interior self but rather idea of “heart”
“Heart” involves relations to others.
Things happen when the “heart” becomes inflamed, which requires control. Commands
(tuydek) direct others
Men are considered – ppt
Institutions where we start to develop a certain kinds of speech, you can’t find the
power of language, has to describe the relationship between ways of speaking specially
the court and church
Use of commands among Ilongot – to direct the unfocused enevry og women or the
undisciplined energy of children ppt. There’s nothing like a statement of “promise” that
doesn’t mean they are not committed – all relationship can show commitment through
reciprocity – understood as exchange relationship – commitment is not showed
through words but action of gift giving
The role of language is to control heart – nothing like explicit, primary performatives,
Either brief commands, whoch are very common in households, and require immediate
actions. – ppt
Speech act theory assume specific notions of personhood. A non-Western society like
the Ilongot makes the assumption apparent
A first implication of Rosaldo’s work: clo