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Lecture 4

ANTB21 – LECTURE 4.docx

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Donna Young

ANTB21 – LECTURE 4  RITUAL: language plays a key role in establishing a ritual.  Continued from last week  Performativity: language and the use of language helps to constitute the world. Austin described ritual events – marriage, making a promise also has a ritual aspect to it. Relationship between ritual and performativity has a key significant rather than displaying or explaining concept  Complexity of ritual – key to our lives which enables the ritual to perceive th  ****Midterm on October 8 , office hours: 1.30 – 3.30 MW 372 but this week 2-4pm  ** 50 mins long. Part 1: identification – identify 3 terms out of 6. Discuss definition + example of why that concept is important (3 * 13 = 39 marks) Part 2: answer 1 of the following 3 questions. Be sure to include at least one relevant example from lecture, tutorial, or the readings  Ex. Of definition index- one of the 3 Sossure talks about – tries to get at the textual nature of language. – I’m here, she’s there. Referencial ideology is an example of essay question. – write 3 paragraphs – definition,+ intro, how does it relate to the world, + example  For historical reasons, a referentialist ideology has been a major assumption in the scholarly study of language.  The referentialist ideology as part of the set of assumptions that go into a football metaphor of communication has been critiqued on many grounds.  A speaker is constituted before they speak – important notion for performativity. The way that you speak creates you a certain speaking subject  The term [ppt]  Even for describing performativity English speaking societies, Speech act theory contained problems: undue emphasis on explicit, primary performative formulation.  Significantly, many verbs in English that describes an action, even on the grounds on which the performativity theory was elaborated it doesn’t work. Many paradigmatic examples used in Speech act theory were taken from highly-ritualized contexts  Linguistic anthropological approaches (e.g. Rosaldo) to performativity discovered that Speech act theory – ppt  Speech act theory critic:  This theory challeneged many of the ideology of referential ideology. Refer to the therapeutic example of Tony. – why is a problem that you can see that words come from other contexts.  Speech act theory suggests that if you want to do something and you find the word ‘promise” – these words came from that person who was speaking  Tony: They are kind of from him and they are kind of not – taking the action and putting it into words and finding the perfect verb  Michelle Z. Rosaldo on Ilongot Speech Acts – looking at a very different kind of society. Sweden agriculturalist – describing the Ilongot Social Wrold – lacking such institution as the office, church or court, most Ilongot social life took place within large one room houses. . ppt  Presumes a Western idea of personhood: - individual, apart from social ties, intention comes from an interior self, Agency )ability to carry something out) is understood theough interior self, also location of responsibility.  Explicit performative is the paradigm speech act. Opinion- the idea that we have, not based on scientific knowledge. Individual ideas that ar disconnected from social relations. -  As you’re responsible for you’re actions, you’re also responsible for what you’re saying.  No notion of “intention from an interior self but rather idea of “heart”  “Heart” involves relations to others.  Things happen when the “heart” becomes inflamed, which requires control. Commands (tuydek) direct others  Men are considered – ppt  Institutions where we start to develop a certain kinds of speech, you can’t find the power of language, has to describe the relationship between ways of speaking specially the court and church  Use of commands among Ilongot – to direct the unfocused enevry og women or the undisciplined energy of children ppt. There’s nothing like a statement of “promise” that doesn’t mean they are not committed – all relationship can show commitment through reciprocity – understood as exchange relationship – commitment is not showed through words but action of gift giving  The role of language is to control heart – nothing like explicit, primary performatives, Either brief commands, whoch are very common in households, and require immediate actions. – ppt  Speech act theory assume specific notions of personhood. A non-Western society like the Ilongot makes the assumption apparent  A first implication of Rosaldo’s work: clo
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