ANTC32 – W3
- We didn’t do a reading of lecture last week, so we will discuss that today
How this defines primitive society
- How is something like order maintained?
- Pritchard: why are they stateless?
o Some people say they hadn’t become that complex yet. It was the
degree zero o history. But he rejected that; he said it doesn’t have
anything to do with history. He argued that it was because they
o Anthro wont necessarily be political. It gives rise to particular social
rises. It is misfortune rather than a destiny. It frames where we move.
The duty to speak
- He started the piece by equating speech with power. Why is speech one of
the essences of power?
o He starts by saying that there are fundamental things we need to
realize. The organ of speech is one of the primary speech by the way
power is maintained. The pronouncement, sanction, etc. of law. If you
are walking in the mall and someone says stop, it makes you stop. The
state control over the speech that matters is what actually matters.
o Claste loved paradox – speech and power were connected. The chief
had monopoly on speech. He says that the one who speaks is often the
name. He says this is a duty and obligation – chief must be able to
speak well and command-speak and display it. There is paradox.
o But the second paradox, no one pays attention to what chief says. Or
at least they pretend not to. Even though what he is saying seems very
important because he is talking about the way ancestors live. This is
precisely the point. Because he command-speaks, he must be ignored.
It is to show the equality – chief is the same level as others. By
absorbing the speech and being ignored, he refuses anyone to act like
a chief. That is the function of chief.
o Speech and Nuer – speech is a passive thing. It is opposite of violence.
If you keep one person that symbolizes the person that is powerful,
you are then cutting the source of violence from the location of power.
Violence is located somewhere else. It is not going to be hoarded by
anyone. We have chief without violence. That capacity is of social.
o If he were to ask this “how is order maintained in society” ***
Comparing chief’s duty and compelling everyone to ignore it.
Torture in Primitive societies
- What is the connection between writing and power?
o Similar thing, it is going to present the law that can be issued and
coding it down. Providing evidence. It grounds in the secret power.
Writing itself has function of power in political society. - We see the connection between law, speech and writing. The laws take on
and we have connection between the sacred and secular. This is what the
nation will live upon, as if given with sacred power. You cannot write
something and make into law. The idea of writing might have to do with law.
That is why he has digression of political value of torture. Torture – to
inscribe the law on the body of those who crossed it. Leave a mark on
someone that violated to the state capacity to be the bearer of law. This idea
of torture is very important that state exists. It is powerful – look what I can
do to you. This leaving of mark is act of writing that there is connection with
written establishment of power.
So what about …