VPAB05 Week 4 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Arts Management
Alan Stanbridge

October 5, 2011 Marxism & Adorno Adorno very pithy writer Classical Marxism Marx the philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it - Wants to interpret the world but also address problems in society - Very activist and political approach Marxism insists that all forms of analysis are ultimately all political - Whenever you make an analysis, youre taking a stance, evaluating, making valuable judgments and wanting to change it Particular modes of production (the. slave, feudal, capitalist) - Slavery existed into 19 century, not long ago - Feudal system, like robin hood. Peasants can farm the land at benevolence of lords - Capitalist Each mode of production produces: 1. Specific ways of obtaining the necessities of life a. Slaves dont hope for lors to ffed em b. Agrarian you grow your own food or crop to sell c. Capitalist you work for a living and then factory owner pays you and then with that money, you buy necessities of life 2. Specific social relations a. Slave and master b. Peasants and lords c. Owner and worker 3. Specific social institutions (inclu. Cultural ones) a. Religion, etc.. Bass/Superstructure Model - Base: consist of forces of production (ex. Agrariangrowing livestokc vs. industrial-factories and producing goods for sale) and the relations of production (ex. Master/slave; lord/peasant; bourgeois(money owners)/proletariat (works for money)) - Considers this the base for any mode of production - Superstructure: consist of institutions (political, social, cultural, etc.) and definite forms of social consciousness o How does it lead us to understand how society is organized? o The base conditions or determines the superstructure this is a vulgar reflection theory leads to economic determinism o Engel argues but texts and practices (i.e. the superstructure) can be active agendas of social stability Ex: debate of arts funding.. base would be economic base and superstructure would be the Arts (this is coming from economic discourse on arts) o Interplay between base and superstructure o Much debate over this, not sure if it is actually useful The Frankfurt School - Established in 1923 - Critical Theory - Key figures: Adorno, Benjamin, Horkehimer, Lowenthal, Marcuse - Adorno and Horkeimer argued The Culture Industry contra Arnold and Leavisims, it maintains, rather than threatens social authority o Similar to leavisism and Arnold, both thought mass culture is bado Frankfurt school approach, also depressing about man-kind. Maintains social authority because it turns masses into passive consumers, no fear that they will rise up in revolution (key difference between leavisms and adorno) - Culture Industry (ardono are referring to something different from contemporary culture industry. It is a more depressing. Unlike Williams acknowledge and acceptance of wide breadth of culture) vs. art or high/authentic culture - The culture industry,.. deprives authentic.. mode of negation (64) o At the point that high culture gets sucked into mass culture, it loses its power and devalues high culture - Commodification devalues authentic culture o Not making it authentic or original anymore o Maintaining high art of high culture and mass o Stems from point of view that there is no market for high art; but contrary, money is always linked to high art o Myth, implies that high art has never been bought or sold and not linked, but that is always the case. o Frankfurt hanging onto a vision of art that is not sustainable - Use of opera and classical music in advertising from bread to expensive motor cars o Says devalues original work - Die Hard (1988) Beethovens Ninth Symphony (plays during the antagonists appearance) - Robyn Stillwell 1997 composer didnt want to use Beethoven, cannon
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