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Lecture 4

lecture 4-5

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Lecture 4: The Copernican Revolution
Geocentric Universe
oAncient astronomers were aware about sun, moon, mercury, venus,
mars, Jupiter and saturn
oPlanet: planets change speed, brightness and have retrograde motion
oInferior planets: Mercury, Venus
oSuperior planets: Mars, Jupiter and Saturn
oInferior planets have inferior conjunction (closest to earth) and superior
conjunction (farthest from the earth)
oSuperior planets go through opposition(close to earth) and conjunction
(farthest away)
oInferior planet never move too far from the sun
oSuperior planets are not tied to sun and experiences retrograde motion
oSuperior planets are brightest at opposition
oInferior planets are brightest near inferior conjunction
Ptolemaic Model of Solar systems and Epicycles
oCenter of the epicycle orbits the Earth called a deferent. The planet
orbits the epicycle.
oThis model can correctly predict retrograde motion
oOnly the moons orbit is correct in this model
Copernican Revolution: Heliocentric Model
oSun is the center of the solar system
oRetrograde motion occurs as Earth passes Mars
Birth of Modern Astronomy
oGalileo discovered mountains on moon, sunspots, rotation of sun,
jupiters moons, venus phases
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