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Lecture 28

BIOA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Selective Breeding, Zygosity, Allele


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Monica Sauer
Lecture
28

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Lecture 28:
Mendel and Genetics
Outline of Lecture 28
Definitions
Early genetic theory
Mendel and the pea
Monohybrid Crosses
Independent Assortment
Behaviour of chromosomes in mitosis
Definitions:
Allele Alternate version of a gene
Character Trait transmitted from one generation to another
Cross Mating between two individuals
Diploid Eukaryotic Cell with 2 homologs
F1Generation Progeny of mating between P generations
F2Generation Progeny of mating between individuals from the F1 generation
Gamete Mature reproductive cell specialized for sexual fusion
Gene Factors that determine the characteristic of a gene
Locus Specific Location on a chromosome
Haploid Individual with one set of chromosomes
True Bred Unchanged trait from parent to offspring for many generations
Zygote Cell produced from fusion between male and female
Dominant Phenotype expressed in F1 (heterozygote) Often encodes for functional
protein
Recessive Phenotype not expressed in an F1 individual
Phenotype Observable charcteristic
Genotype Allele Pairs present in an individual
Homozygous Two alleles that are the same
Heterozygous Two alleles that are different
Early Genetic Theory
Before Mendel people believed in artificial selection for domesticated animals
Homunculus Theory:
oSperm produces entire copy of DNA, egg only provides nutrients
oDoes not explain why offspring looked like both parents
Blended Theory
oSperm and egg contained essential essences that mix together in offspring
oDoes not explain why all offspring doesn’t look alike
Mendel and the Pea
Used cross pollination
Removed the anthers
Then transferred the pollen to the stigma
Why did he use the pea?
oThe pea had a lot of variation
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