BIOA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Cartilaginous Joint, Synovial Joint, Neural Crest

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16 Aug 2016
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Lecture 6
Animal Organization & Physiology
Major Divisions of the Vertebrate Skeleton
Axial Skeleton
Skull, Vertebral Column, Sternum, Rib Cage
Appendicular Skeleton
Shoulder, Hips, Legs and Arm Bones (SHLAB)
Bone Tissue
Compact bone regions
compact bone regions have no spaces except the microscopic canals
of the osteons.
osteons: the fundamental unit of compact bone – roughly cylindrical
structures that are typically several millimetres long and around
0.2mm in diameter.
Spongy bone regions
open into larger spaces filled by red or yellow marrow.
Mineral storage
calcium and phosphate ions are constantly deposited and withdrawn
from bone.
Vertebrate Movement: The Interaction between Muscles and
Bones
Joints of the vertebrate endoskeleton allow bones to move and rotate.
Vertebrates have muscle-bone interactions optimized for specific
movements.
Types of Joints
Fibrous joint: in fibrous joints, bones are joined by connective tissue fibres –
these joints offer little to no movements e.g. the joints of the skull or teeth.
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Lecture 5
Animal Organization & Physiology(Textbook Chapters 31, 35, 36)
Cartilaginous joint: in cartilaginous joints the ends of bones are covered
with layers of cartilage but no fluid-filled capsule surround them – they are
less moveable e.g. vertebrae or rib joints.
Synovial joint: synovial joints consist of two end bones enclosed by a fluid-
filled capsule of connective tissue – this is the most moveable joint type e.g.
fingers, wrists.
Muscle Tissue – Vertebrates
Cardiac Muscle
Cardiac muscle consists of short contractile cells with a branched structure.
Cardiac muscles are part of the muscles that form the heart.
Cardiac muscle: interlinked network of short and branched cylindrical,
striated cells, attached by intercalating disks.
Location – Wall of the Heart
Function – to pump blood within the circulatory system.
Smooth Muscle
Smooth muscle consists of spindle-shaped contractile cells. They form
layers surrounding the cavities and tubes of the body.
Smooth muscle: is a loose network of contractile cells with tapered ends.
Location (typical) – Wall of Internal Organs, e.g. the stomach
Function – movement of internal organs.
Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscle consists of large contractile cells also known as muscle
fibres; they assist in the movement of body parts and maintaining posture.
Skeletal muscle: bundles of long, cylindrical, striated, contractile
multinucleate cells, called muscle fibres.
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Lecture 6
Animal Organization & Physiology
Location (typical) – Attached to the Bones of the Skeleton
Function – locomotion/movement of body parts.
Action of Skeletal Muscles
At a joint an agonist muscle causes movement when it contracts. Most
skeletal muscles are arranged in antagonistic pairs. Members of an
antagonistic pair pull a bone in opposite directions. When one member of an
antagonistic pair contracts, the other member relaxes and is stretched.
Organization of Skeletal Muscles
Skeletal muscles connect to bones of skeleton. They may extend or bend
body parts or help in their rotation.
Muscle fibres: long, cylindrical cells.
Myofibrils: contractile elements of muscle fibres.
Sarcomeres: contractile units with two types of filaments arranged in an
overlapping pattern (found on a portion of a myofibril).
Sarcomere Contraction
Thin filaments of actin slide over thick filaments of myosin simultaneously
on each side of the sarcomeres. This shortens the sarcomeres and the
relevant muscle fibres, which produces force that contracts the muscle.
Nervous System
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