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BIOB32H3 Lecture Notes - Intrapleural Pressure, Pulmonary Circulation, Partial Pressure

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Kenneth Welch

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The Respiratory System
The Respiratory System: An Introduction
Functions of the respiratory system
•Gas exchange between air and circulating blood
•Moving air from the exchange surface of the lungs
•Protection of respiratory surfaces
•Production of sound
•Provision for olfactory sensations
Organization of the respiratory system
•Upper respiratory system
•Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
•Lower respiratory system
•Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
The Respiratory tract
•Conducting passageways carrying air to and from the alveoli
•Upper respiratory passages filter and humidify incoming air
•Lower passageways include delicate conduction passages and alveolar exchange surfaces
Respiratory Mucosa
•Respiratory epithelium and underlying connective tissue
•Respiratory membrane, supported by lamina propria, changes along tract
•Lines conducting portion of respiratory tract
•Protected from contamination by respiratory defense system
The Upper Respiratory System
The nose and nasal cavity consists of:
•External nares
•Nasal cavity
•Superior, middle and inferior meatuses
•Hard and soft palates
•Internal nares
•Nasal mucosa
The pharynx
•Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems
•Divided into three sections:
Nasopharynx superior portion
•Oropharynx continuous with the oral cavity
•Laryngopharynx between the hyoid bone and the esophagus
The Larynx
The larynx

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•Air passes through the glottis on the way to the lungs
•Larynx protects the glottis
•Cartilages of the larynx
•Three large cartilages
•Thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis
•Paired cartilages
•Arytenoids, corniculate, and cuneiform
Folds of the larynx
•Inelastic vestibular folds
•Delicate vocal folds
Sound production
•Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds producing sound waves
•Pitch depends on conditions of vocal folds
The laryngeal musculature
•Muscles of the neck and pharynx position and stabilize the larynx
•When swallowing,these muscles
•Elevate the larynx
•Bend the epiglottis over the glottis
•Intrinsic muscles control tension on the vocal folds and open the glottis
The Trachea and Primary Bronchi
The trachea
•Extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra
•A tough, flexible tube running from the larynx to the bronchi
•Held open by C-shaped tracheal cartilages in submucosa
•Mucosa is similar to the nasopharynx
The primary bronchi
•Trachea branches in the mediastinum into right and left bronchi
•Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus
•Root = the connective tissue mass including:
•Pulmonary vessels
The Lungs
Lobes and surfaces of the lungs
•Lobes of the lung are separated by fissures
•Right lung has three lobes
•Left lung has two lobes
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