BIOB33H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Bronchopulmonary Segment, Bronchoconstriction, Skeletal Muscle

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Published on 6 Oct 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOB33H3
Professor
1
Lecture 8
The Respiratory System
(based on chapter 24)
An Overview of the Respiratory System
The upper respiratory system consists of:
nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx
The lower respiratory system consists of:
larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
Functions of the Respiratory System
Provides an area for gas exchange between the air and the blood
Protects the respiratory surfaces (for example: from dehydration)
Provides protection against invading pathogens
Produces sound involved in verbal communication
Assists in the regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, and body fluid pH
The Respiratory Epithelium
Consists of:
Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar cells (except for the pharynx, smaller bronchi,
and alveoli)
Mucus-producing cells
Pharynx consists of stratified squamous cells
Function:
Ciliated columnar cells move mucus in an upward manner (mucus escalator) so
debris can be coughed out
Mucous cells produce mucus so inhaled debris will get stuck and not enter the
lungs
Stratified squamous cells provide protection against abrasion
Protection of the Respiratory System
Hairs in the nose called vibrissae block some of the inhaled debris
Nasal cavity produces mucus to trap inhaled debris
Sneezing will remove this debris
Respiratory epithelium mucus will trap inhaled debris
Coughing will remove this debris
The Upper Respiratory System
The following is the pathway of air:
Air enters the external nares
Passes by the nasal vestibule
Area surrounded by the two pairs of alar cartilage
Enters the nasal cavity
Air flows in and around the nasal conchae
Inferior, middle, and superior conchae
As air swirls around the conchae, debris gets stuck in the mucus
As air swirls around the conchae, the air warms and gets humidified (moistened) a
bit before entering the trachea
Air enters the internal nares
Air enters the nasopharynx area
The Pharynx
The pharynx (throat or gullet) is a funnel shaped passageway that connects the nose to the
larynx of the respiratory system and the esophagus of the digestive system
supporting walls of skeletal muscle and lined with mucous membrane
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Document Summary

The lower respiratory system consists of: nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Provides an area for gas exchange between the air and the blood. Protects the respiratory surfaces (for example: from dehydration) Assists in the regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, and body fluid ph. Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar cells (except for the pharynx, smaller bronchi, and alveoli) Ciliated columnar cells move mucus in an upward manner (mucus escalator) so debris can be coughed out. Mucous cells produce mucus so inhaled debris will get stuck and not enter the lungs. Hairs in the nose called vibrissae block some of the inhaled debris. Nasal cavity produces mucus to trap inhaled debris. Area surrounded by the two pairs of alar cartilage. Air flows in and around the nasal conchae. As air swirls around the conchae, debris gets stuck in the mucus.

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