BIOB34H3 Lecture Notes - Muscular Layer, Muscularis Mucosae, Loose Connective Tissue

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20 Mar 2013
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Chapter 23 Digestive System
Basics
- Two groups of organs
1. alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract is a continuous tube with openings at mouth and
anus)
2. accessory organs (teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, pancreas)
- Digestive processes
1. ingestion (eating)
2. motility (propulsion and mixing)
3. digestion (breaking down food into smaller pieces)
a. mechanical - teeth, stomach, small intestine
b. chemical - enzymes break down large molecules
4. absorption (small molecules absorbed into blood and lymph)
5. defecation (eliminating wastes)
- Peritoneum
1. covers most organs below diaphragm
a. visceral layer
b. parietal layer
c. peritoneal cavity with serous fluid
2. mesenteries
a. fused sheets of peritoneum that connect organs to abdominal wall and to each other
1) mesentery proper - small intestine to posterior abdominal wall
2) mesocolon - large intestine to posterior abdominal wall
3) falciform ligament - liver to anterior abdominal wall
4) lesser omentum - stomach to liver
5) greater omentum - stomach to posterior abdominal wall
3. some organs are retroperitoneal (parts of intestines, pancreas, kidneys)
- Tunics
1. mucosa
a. epithelium
1) stratified squamous in mouth, esophagus, anal canal
2) simple columnar in stomach and intestines
b. lamina propria
1) areolar connective tissue, lots of capillaries and lymphatic vessels, lymphatic nodules
c. muscularis mucosae
1) thin layer of smooth muscle creates folds
2. submucosa
a. areolar connective tissue, lots of vessels and nerve fibers
3. muscularis externa
a. thicker layers of smooth muscle
1) circular, longitudinal layers
2) nerve fibers
4. serosa (visceral peritoneum)
- intrinsic nerve plexuses (enteric nervous system)
1. network of nerves in digestive tract wall that regulate and coordinate (submucosal and
myenteric)
2. influenced by extrinsic autonomic fibers
Mouth
- Vestibule - area between teeth and lips
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Document Summary

Two groups of organs: alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or gi tract is a continuous tube with openings at mouth and anus, accessory organs (teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, pancreas) Intrinsic nerve plexuses (enteric nervous system: network of nerves in digestive tract wall that regulate and coordinate (submucosal and myenteric, influenced by extrinsic autonomic fibers, mouth. Vestibule - area between teeth and lips. Oral cavity proper - area enclosed by teeth and gums. Palate: hard (maxillae and palatine bones, soft (muscle) Tongue: mixes food with saliva, sense of taste. Salivary glands: cleanse mouth and moisten food, begin digestion of carbohydrates, parotid, mandibular, sublingual. Deglutition (swallowing) accomplished by muscles in mouth, pharynx and esophagus. Consists of fundus, body and antrum: mixing and storing food (makes chyme, begins protein digestion. Has an extra layer of muscle (oblique) Joins with small intestine at pyloric sphincter. The major digestive organ (most chemical digestion, nearly all absorption: small intestine.

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