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Lecture 9

BIOD27H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Limbic System, Basal Ganglia, Motor Neuron


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOD27H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic
Lecture
9

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BGYB30H3 Lecture 9 Notes
-the medulla oblongata controls involuntary breathing and vomiting
-the pons is the primary relay circuit between cerebellum and cerebrum
-the pons controls breathing in conjunction with the medulla
-the midbrain controls eye movement(saccades) and relays info to the auditory and visual
cortex
-the cerebellum processes sensory info such as muscle reflexes and coordinates fine motor
control
-cerebellum receives inputs from inner ear to control balance and equilibrium of body parts
-the diencephalon controls homeostasis and has the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary and
pineal glands
-the thalamus relays motor info from the cerebellum and can modify info as well
-the hypothalamus controls homeostasis, temperature, osmolarity, hunger, and sex drive
-hypothalamus controls the autonomic nervous system and endocrine function
-pituitary and pineal gland release hormones
-corpus callosum are axonal tracts between right and left hemisphere
-grooves called the central sulcus and lateral sulcus separate the frontal lobe from the other
lobes
-the nervous system is made up of a sensory, cognitive, and behavioural state system
-sensory system monitors internal and external environment leading to reflexes
-v}ÇÇu}v[oÇ]v(}}Ze cerebrum but only the spinal cord
-cognitive system involves cerebral response leading to voluntary responses from the CNS
-ZÀ]}µoÇu]vÀ}oÀu}]}vo}vÁZ]Z}v[oÁÇ]vÀ}oÀZ
cerebrum (can come from the brain stem)
-any response of the body is caused by the integration of the three systems
-sensory areas allow increased awareness and perception
-association areas integrate info from different sensory regions to initiate voluntary responses
-motor areas relay info from association areas to cause a response
-function of the two hemispheres of the brain is not symmetric but exhibit cerebral dominance
-the brain connections, through its plasticity, allow one hemisphere to learn the functions of
the other in case of injury
-sensory pathways involve skin, skeletal muscles, touch, pain, body position, and visceral
-visceral system involves internal organs that are integrated spinal cord and brain stem
-olfactory cortex (found in the temporal lobe) receives info about smell from the nose
-gustatory cortex (found in the frontal lobe) receives info about taste from the tongue
-association areas integrate somatic and special senses
-skeletal muscles are controlled by the somatic motor system
-smooth and cardiac muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system
-voluntary movement is controlled by the primary motor cortex
-motor inputs are from cerebellum and basal ganglia
-outputs go to the brain stem where they crossover to the other side of the body
(lateralization)
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