BIOD27H3 Lecture : Textbook notes-Chapter 1

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Chapter 1- Introduction to Physiology
x Physiology- the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical
x Aristotle used the word in this broad sense to describe the functioning of all living organisms, not just the human body
field became closely associated w/ medicine
x Anatomy- the study of structure, w/ much less emphasis on function
x Anatomy and physiology cannot be separated as the function of a tissue or organ is closely tied to its structure, and the
structure of the tissue or organ presumably evolved to provide an efficient physical base for its function
Physiological Systems
x Fig. 1-1 (pg. 2) shows the different levels of organization of living organisms
x One distinguishing feature of physiology is that it encompasses many levels of organization, from the molecular level
all the way up to populations of a species
x The smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes is the cell which are collections of molecules
separated from the external environment by a barrier called the cell or plasma membrane
x Tissues- collections of cells that carry out related functions; form structural and functional units known as organs and
groups of organs integrate their functions to create organ systems
Table 1-1 Organ Systems of the Human Body (pg.4)
System Name
Organs or Tissues
Representative Functions
Heart, blood vessels, blood
Transport of materials b/w all cells of body
Stomach, intestines, liver,
Conversion of food into particles that can be
transported into the body; elimination of some
Thyroid gland, adrenal gland
Coordination of body function through
synthesis and release of regulatory molecules
Thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
Defense against foreign invaders
Protection from external environment
Skeletal muscles, bones
Support and movement
Brain, spinal cord
Coordination of body function through
electrical signals and release of regulatory
Ovaries and uterus, testes
Perpetuation of the species
Lungs, airways
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide b/w
the internal and external environments
Kidneys, bladder
Maintenance of water and solutes in the
internal environment; waste removal
environment from the external environment (outside world)
x Musculoskeletal system- provides support and body movement
x 4 systems exchange materials b/w the internal and external environment - respiratory system exchanges gases; digestive
system takes up nutrients and water and eliminates wastes; urinary system removes excess water and waste material;
and reproductive system produces eggs or sperm
x 4 systems extend throughout the body- circulatory system distributes materials by pumping blood through vessels;
nervous and endocrine system coordinate body functions
x The figure shows them as a continuum rather than as two distinct systems b/c the lines b/w these 2 systems have blurred
x Immune system- immune cells are positioned to intercept material that may enter through the exchange surfaces or
through a break in the skin, and they protect the internal environment from foreign invaders; immune tissues are closely
associated w/ the circulatory system
Function and Process
does the event happen- this way of thinking is called the teleological approach
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