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2013BIOAO2 Lecture 04.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. Freom tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 4 notes (Plant cells and plant tissues) B) Differentiated cells ii) Complex plant tissues. a) epidermis-protection, gas exchange, uptake. In roots, shoots, leaves. Comparative form and function=variation on a theme One. Epidermal hairs (e.g Lateral root, root hair, root cap, root epidermis) Two. Epidermal glands (e.g hemp. Cannibis sativa) Three. Epidermal stinging hairs (e.g stinging nettle. Urtica dioica.) Four. Sonical epidermis. (e.g violet, viola, velvety sheen) Five. Epidermal platelets (e.g silverberry. Elaeagnus) Six. Water-repellent epidermis (e.g Lotus. Nelumbo nucifera) Seven. Epidermal sensing hair (e.g venus flytrap. Dionaea muscipula) Eight. Epidermis of the pitcher plant. Nepenthes sp. – have 3 different types b) periderm-protection, gas exchange Perennial (living for several years)plants-wear and tear of epidermis. Growth of stem=ripping epidermis apart. So need sealing. Periderm=bark Cork cambium-source of new periderm. Secondary meristem. Cork cells-protection. Dead at maturity, wall of lignin (anti-microbial), suberin(wax- like to go against desiccation) c) xylem-transport, support, storage First. Tracheids-transport, support. Dead at maturity Second. Vessels-transport, support. Dead at maturity Third. Parenchyma-support. Alive Fourth. Fibers-support. Alive Continuous system transporting water and minerals form roots ot rest of plants. Trachieds: water moves only between pits.  Tick lignified cell walls  Water flows through adjacent pits from cell to cell  Soft wood conifers Vessels: water moves between perforations and pits.  Thick lignified cell walls  Water flows through openings-perforations, and pits from cell to cell.  Annular vessel, spiral vessel, scalariform vessel, pitted vessel.  Surrounded by parenchyma.  Trachields developed first then vessels.  Hardwood. Angiospersm. All tracheids, vessels, parenchyma, fibers are lignified=hard,sturdy,wood. d) phloem-transport. 2 types: sieve tube memebers and companion cell
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