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Lecture 10

2013BIOAO2 Lecture 10.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. From tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 10 notes (Plant nutrition & soils) A) Nutrients necessary for plant life Sugar: carbon dioxide & light & water Water & oxygen From high elements needed to low elements needed  H>C>O  then macronutrient:N>K>Ca>Mg>P>S>Si. Required in large amounts  Then micronutrient: Cl>Fe>B>Mn>Na>Zn>Cu>Ni>Molybdenum(mo) required in smaller amounts  Absence prevents plant from completing its life cycle Most limiting under average condition: N,P,K  Dunes lack N=no plant growth  When ice melt, there is no bacteria in the sugar=no N=no plant growth Nitrogen (unreactive) Essential building block for life, basic metabolism, photosynthesis Atmospheric overabundance (78% nitrogen gas) Bioavailability through bacteria. Young soils (dune, volcanic soil, ice glaciers) limit N until bacteria build up. Building blocks of life: amino acid into protein Glycine, Alanine, Serine, Threonine, Cysteine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, proline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, apsartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamime. Histidine, lysine, arginine. (C,H,O,N elements) N present in:  Photosynthesis: chlorophyll A-H C3 chlorophyll B: COOH  Energy currency: NADP  Inheritance: nucliec acids. ATCG  ATP so let’s start with atmosphere nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas has 3 ways to turn into reactive nitrogen. Path 1: N 2 lightning> into soil> nitrate Path 2: N 2 Nitrogen fixation soil bacteria>decomposition>amino acid>ammonia>nitrite>nitrate. Path 3: N 3 Nitrogen fixation symbionts rhizobia in plants>plant is consumed by animal>animal excretion into soil>uric acid & urea> ammonia>nitrite>nitrat Now let’s see how nitrate turns back into unreactive nitrogen gas Path 1: Nitrate>denitrifying bacteria>N 2 Path 2: Nitrate> absorbed by plants>path 3 . Remember, 78% of nitrogen gas! There is not a lot of nitrate in soil because of competition. Nitrate is a bio accessible form Phosphorus-hard to take up by plants-low bio availability- reactive with soil. Promotes early plant growth and root formation: P have role in cell division Essential for flowerin and fruiting. P is found in: inheritance (nucleic acids RNA&DNA), ATP-3P present , NADP-3P present, Energy currency. Potassium Important in process of sugar and starch production Opening & closing stomata Increase plant disease resistance, assist in enzyme activiation& phtosynthesis Increase size& quiality of fruits Bioavailability in K ions. Relatively immobile in soils. Better absorbed than Phosphorus. (e.g clay & hummus tied to soil particle) How to recognize P,K,N deficiencies:  Healthy leaf: all green  P-deficient: purple  K-deficient: yellow outside  N-deficient: yellow inside. B) Nutrients availability in soils Nutrient charge To take up a nutrient, it must be dissolved into cation and anion  caTion as in ca+ion (positive) and anion (negavie) Typical nutrient cations and anions:  cations: K+,NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+,Zn+ Mn2+,Fe+,Cu+  anions: No3-,H2PO4-,HPO4-,SO4-,BO3-,MoO4- Nearly all P reacts with soil particles other than clay and organic material making it insoluble making it percipitates out of soil solution making P unavailable. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of soil In clays & humus: have more nutrients because higher cation exchange capacity, higher negatively charged sites. In sand: have lower nutrients
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