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Lecture 2

2014 BioA02: Stehlik: lecture 2 - Tree of life part 2

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Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

- Tree of life lycophytes o Life cycle similar to ferns o Originated in Silurian time o Better at conquring life on land because they have cuticle and vascular tissues o Vascular tissues allows them to grow taller and have a backbone - Conquering of dry land by vascular plants o 420m years old o Waxy cuticle- keeps in water o Soma- opening through waxy layer o Vascular tissue- first time it ever evolved o Modern day plants- clubmosses, quillworts, spikmosses (most) - Tree of life ferns o Originated in the Carboniferous time period o Created coal- accumulation of dead fern material o Early fern plants whiksferns, horsetails, true ferns (largest group) - True ferns o Azolla – smallest fern o Tree ferns – the biggest ferns - Life cycle of ferns o Fern is a diploid, sporophyte o Spores are produced in sori o In the diploid sori there are haploid spores which are released, and g spore germinate and grows in a prothallium (heart shaped organ) - Fern reproduction o Lower side of prothallium produces antheridia (male gamete producing organ) o Upper side produces archegonia (female gaete producing organs) - Life cycle of ferns o Spermatozoid have 2 falgelli (they are entwined, propel the spermatozoid through water) o Archgoni has one haploid cell o Spermazoid swims to haploid cell and develops into diploid sporophyte with protjallium at the base. - Both generations are photosynthetic o Sporophyte feeds itself - Two mobile life cycle phases o Pores fro sorus when released are wind dependent and have long distance dispersal o Spermatozoid self propelled over short distances - Interpretation of life cycle(ferns and lycophytes) o Diploid, sprophytic generation is the longest - Still strong water dependence o Sporphyte Better equipt to withstand drougt o Prothallium doesn’t have a cuticle need mist shady c
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