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Lecture 13

Lec13 - Introduction to Physiology.doc

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA02H3
Professor
Mary Olaveson
Semester
Winter

Description
Introduction to PhysiologySlide Onephysiological systems from a human perspectiveNervous and endocrine systems are control systems of the bodyNervous SystemoThe brain central nervous system receives information from various regions of the body through peripheral nerves which will then be sent out through either motor control signals to muscles or via somatic nerves to various organs and glandsEndocrine SystemoSimilarly it is a controlregulatory system oThere are a number of endocrine glands throughout the body which produce and secrete hormones circulated in the blood that have an influence on organ structuresThese two systems can be known as the command and control regulatory systemsSlide Twophysiological systems from a nonhuman perspectiveThe functions of the nervous and endocrine system are very similar as we look at other animalsThere can also be a number of differencesoThe organization of neurons can be different from what we see in humansLooking at individual nerves the function in animals are similar to what we see in humans and other animalsSlide Threephysiological systems from a human perspectiveMuscularSkeletalIntegumentary Systems serve the purposes of movementsupportbinding us togetherdefenceoIntegumentary system is the human skin systemoFirst line of defence to keep things outWe use muscles to move there are various types of musclesSkeletal muscles are used to move aroundoSmooth muscles help for example to propel food in the gutSlide Fourphysiological systems from a nonhuman perspectiveOther than the size and shape of the head many skeletal systems are similar A bird skeleton differs from the human skeleton because birds have hollow bones which make them lighter for flightCartilaginous fish have skeletal systems made up of cartilage instead of bonesMuscle function in birds are similar to humans and animalsHummingbirds are on crack beating their wings at more than 100 timessecondoThe mechanisms for muscle contractions in hummingbirds are significantly different than in human or other animal systemsInvertebrates have their skeleton on the outside called the exoskeletonFish are cold blooded they adapt their body temperature to that of the environmentoNot always soTunaSharksMarlin oHave the ability to raise their internal temperature of their muscles and keep it 50100 degrees higher than the rest of their body and the environmentoCore of muscles generate heat and trap heatSlide Fivehuman perspectiveRespiratory systems job is to obtain oxygen and to excrete carbon dioxideCirculatory system delivers oxygen to the body and takes metabolic carbon dioxide to the lungs where its excretedCardiorespiratory functions are intimately linkedAny fluid that leaks out of the circulatory system is drained back into the circulatory system through the lymph
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