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lecture 2

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Biological Sciences
Kenneth Welch

Chapter 2: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Cell Physiology 1 Biochemistry  Metabolic flux = flow through the pathway  Metabolic pathways can be either: o Synthetic = anabolic o Degradative = catabolic o Or a combinate of both = amphibolic  Energy metabolism revolves around the production of ATP and other energy rich molecules  Metabolism is the sum of all these metabolic pathways within the cell, tissue, or organism  Enzymes o Are biological catalysts that convert a substrate to a product o Enzymes have three properties  They are active at very low concentrations within the cell  They increase the rate of reactions but they themselves are not altered in the process  They do not change the nature of the products o Most enzymes are composed of protein  Though some are made up of RNA o Many enzymes posses nonprotein components called cofactors  Cofactor =  A cofactor that is covalently bonded to the enzyme is called a prosthetic group o Prosthetic group =  Some enzymes use cofactors that are metals (Cu, Fe, Mg, Se)  Organic cofactors = coenzymes =  Are derived from vitamins o Coenzyme A is derived from pantothenic acid o FAD from riboflavin o NAD from niacin o Enzymes accelerate reactions by reducing the reaction activation energy  Can apply laws of thermodynamics to chemical reactions that happen in living cells  Enzymes do not determine whether or not a chemical reaction is thermodynamically possible  Enzymes have the ability to accelerate thermodynamically feasible 8 12 reactions by factors of 10 to 10 Chapter 2: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Cell Physiology 2  Substrate molecules
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