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An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kenneth Welch

An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology The basic functions of organisms • Organization • Responsiveness • Growth and differentiation • Reproduction • Movement • Metabolism and excretion The Specialties of Anatomy • Gross Anatomy • Surface anatomy • Regional anatomy • Systemic anatomy • Developmental anatomy • Microscopic anatomy • Cytology • Histology Comparative Anatomy • All vertebrates share a basic pattern of organization, most noticeable during embryology. The Specialties of Physiology • Cell physiology • Special physiology • Systemic physiology • Pathological physiology Levels of Organization • Integumentary system • Nervous system • Skeletal system • Endocrine system • Muscular system • Cardiovascular system • Lymphatic system • Urinary system • Respiratory system • Digestive system • Reproductive system Homeostasis: Two general points within homeostasis • Autoregulation • Extrinsic regulation Homeostatic regulation involves • A receptor • A control center • An effector Negative Feedback: Example--The Control of Body Temperature Positive Feedback: Example--Blood Clotting Language of Anatomy Anatomical position – standing upright with palms facing forward : A frame of reference for anatomical studies • Superficial anatomy breaks the body into anatomical landmarks and regions • Sectional anatomy provides directional references Anatomical Landmarks Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Directional References Planes and Sections are important in visualizing structures • Transverse plane divides the
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