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Animal Physiology Lecture 2.docx

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Biological Sciences
Rosada Silva

Animal Physiology BIOB34 – Lecture 2 - Prof. DaSilva – September 13, 2012 Readings: pgs. 22-25, 29-31, 25-57, 64-69 - Cellular processes govern philosophy - Energy is made in the mitochondria (energy production) Metabolism - Metabolic Pathways : govern a series of reactions that substrates are converted to products (catalyzed by enzymes) - Enzymes: act as catalysts and make things happen faster  Synthesis = anabolic (put together)  Degradative = catabolic (take apart) - Linked by stable intermediate where there’s a substrate bound to an enzyme , then an intermediate and a product - Metabolism: the sum of metabolic pathways for the synthesis & breakdown of molecules - Energy Metabolism: revolves around the production of ATP & other energy-rich molecules Enzymes - Enzymes control inner workings of cells - Most enzymes are made of proteins, but many enzymes also have non-protein components called cofactors - Catalysts that accelerate chemical reactions & have 3 properties: 1. Active @ low concentrations 2. Increase the rate of reactions without being altered themselves in the process (not destroyed) in regular homeostatic animals 3. Don’t change the nature of the products - Enzyme activity is influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, salt concentration & hydrostatic pressure Procedure - Substrate binds to enzyme’s “Active Site” - Enzymes accelerate reactions by reducing the activation energy ( ) - Once is met, the substrate adopts a transition state and then spontaneously changes the product [ ] - Enzymes accelerate rection rates and make possible reactions that would not normally occur at useful rates - Enzymatic reactions are sensitive to changes in the concentration of products (P) or substrates (S)  Add more substrate = faster reactions because enzymes take up product faster because enzyme will try to break down as much as it can - Enzymes can bind as many substrates as there are enzymes - Too much product slows down reactions Enzyme Kinetics - How well an enzyme makes a reactions occur is the kinetics that occurs within the enzyme - Enzyme rapidly converts SP - The buildup of P slows the reactions as P competes with S for the active site until equilibrium is reached - Initial velocity (V) is the fastest because P has not yet accumulated - Michaelis Menten were a group of researchers who wanted to see the effects of having substrate concentration on how fast a reaction can occur - E is eventually saturated with S molecules and is reached - is an indicator of the affinity of E for S 4 Types of Biomolecules Proteins (Enzymes) - Polymers of amino acids with complex 3D structures - Cell structure & function Carbohydrates - Hydrates of Carbon, precursor to many other carbs - Involved in energy metabolism Nucleic Acid - Includes DNA & RNA - Encode, transmit & express genetic info Cell Theory 1. Cells are the building blocks of all plants & animals 2. Cells are made by the division of the pre-exisiting cells 3. Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions 4. Each cell maintains homeostasis @ cellular level  Homeostatic balance out of wack, cell balance out of wack  Homeostasis reflects the combined & coordinated actions of many cells Cell Membrance Functions - Made of phospholipid bilayer that has cholesterol molecules embedded in it, as well as protein  Sugar
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