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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 on Neurons

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences

BIOB30Fall2011 Chapter 8 Neurons Cellular and Network PropertiesLecture 6Neurotransmitter Classification o Neurotransmitters can be classified based on chemical composition amines amino acids and acetylcholine o Amines are synthesized in the body and are derived from amino acids o Catecholamines derived from tyrosine dopamine DA noepinephrine NA and epinephrineadrenaline Ado Derived from tryptophan serotonin and 5 hydroxy tryptamine 5HT o Amino acids neurotransmitter fall under 2 categories those made from glutamine glumatemajor excitatory causes trigger in the neuron and those made from glutamate GABAgammaaminobutyricacid which is inhibitory o Acetylcholine are synthesized in the body and derived from choline and acetyl coA Biosynthesis Release and Catabolism of Catacholamines 1 tyrosine is transported into the axon terminalsynaptic buton2 tyrosine is converted to neurotransmitter by a series of enzymes 3 DOPA is the precursor for dopamine and norepinephrine 4 Dopamine is the precursor for norepinephrine5 Enzyme content of presynaptic terminals determine whether dopamine or norepinephrine will be synthesized6 Neurotransmitter in synaptic cleft is taken back up by active transport7 Excess neurotransmitter is broken down by enzyme in the cytoplasm of the presynaptic terminal called catabolism Biosynthesis and Recycling of Acetylcholine 1 Acetylcholine is made from choline and acetyl CoA 2 In the synaptic cleft acetylcholine is rapidly broken down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase3 Choline is transported back into the axon terminal and is used to make more acetylcholineBiosynthesis release and breakdown of Glutamate and GABAo Glutaminealphaketoglutarate from the mitochondriaglutamateGABA o Taken up into presynaptic terminal by transporter active reuptake and broken down Biosynthesis release and breakdown of 5hydroxytryptamineo Tryptophan5HT o Taken up into presynaptic terminal by transporter active reuptake and broken down or repackaged into synaptic vesicles Neurotransmitter Binding To Receptoro There is a finite number of receptors o At low concentrations there is a linear relationship between NT concentration and amount of NT bound to the receptor o At high concentrations the receptors become saturatedno more NTs can bind o Maximum number of NT boundmaximum downstream effect that the neurotransmitter can cause 1
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