BIOB51 – Lecture Notes
“Good fit” meaning adapted within their environment.
What accounts for the diversity of species and then the nested similarity within this diversity?
Before Darwin, biologists were looking to answer these questions and didn’t really have a lot of
information. Their answer to these kinds of questions was special creation.
Special Creation is an idea that pervaded the globe.
If we were to draw it out schematically, time is progressing and origin of all species (separately,
recently and independently).
Before Darwin, biologists made some observations that suggested that special creation wasn’t
really the best idea for the answers for these questions.
1. Species didn’t remain exactly the same over time.
2. In the past, people might not have the information if a species has gone extinct. When
the dodo bird went extinct, it was one of the first time biologists realized something can
cease to exist.
3. A lot of study of fossils. Fossil record provides this idea there’s more to it than just an
independent one-time creation event.
4. Important observation.
Also thought of the evolution by natural selection.
Definition answered the life and diversity questions but not the adaptation one.
Slide 21 Wasps of same colony have different amount of black to help identify individuals apart. Variation
in colours for these flowers in California.
The plant aphid can reproduce parthenogenetically meaning female plant aphids don’t need to
mate to reproduce. They can essentially clone themselves within their body. So their egg which
has their genetic information can grow other plant aphids. They can start reproducing after 7
days of being born and can produce 14 offspring per day.
1. Competition: offspring compete with each other for resources
2. P &P: Not all of them can survive b/c they’re eaten by other things
1. Climate: some individuals have variation in their cold or heat tolerance
2. Catastrophic events: volcanos, floods, etc.
3. Habitat/food limitation: ie. deserts – not enough water for everything to live
Stored fat related to an animal’s health and can be measured in bone marrow index. Impalas
with low bone marrow index have eaten less; have less storage nutrients and generally doing
less well in life than individuals with less stored fat.
Random= random selection of impalas in the environment, random level of what the average store fat
in the individuals in this population. This is taken from the bone marrow of the impalas that were hunted. The hunters aren’t
making a selection of better or worse, they’re just hunting impalas and whoever they happened they kill, that’s whose bone
marrow they measure.
Prey= bone marrow of impala that became pre