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BIOC33H3 (127)

Patient and Family Teaching

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Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

Chapter 5: Patient and Family Teaching  Specific goals for patient education include health promotion, prevention of disease, management of illness, and appropriate selection and use of treatment options.  A teaching plan includes assessment of the patient’s ability, need, and readiness to learn as well as identification of problems that can be resolved with teaching.  Learning occurs when there is an internal mental change characterized by rearrangement of neural pathways.  Teaching is a process of deliberately arranging external conditions to promote the internal transformation that results in a change in behavior.  When teaching adults, it is important to identify what is valued by the person to enhance motivation.  Reinforcement is a strong motivational factor for maintaining behavior. Positive reinforcement involves rewarding a desired behavior with a positive stimulus to increase its occurrence.  Required skills for the nurse as a teacher include knowledge of the subject matter, communication skills, and empathy.  Because of shortened hospital stays and clinic visits, the nurse and the patient need to set priorities of the patient’s learning needs so that teaching can occur during any contact with the patient or family.  Education of family members is important because family members can promote the patient’s self- care and prevent complications.  The teaching process involves development of a plan that includes assessment, diagnosis, setting patient outcomes or objectives, intervention, and evaluation.  The patient’s experiences, rate of learning, and ability to retain information are affected by age.  Pain, fatigue, and certain medications influence the patient’s ability to learn.  Anxiety and d
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