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Biological Sciences

1 BGYC33/CC4 Study Guide, Lectures 16-18 (2011) Lecture 16: Kidney Structure and Exchange Processes within Nephrons Topics Fluid Movement across Capillaries Hydrostatic Pressure Gradients Oncotic Pressure Gradients Net Filtration Pressure (Filtration and Reabsorption) Kidney Anatomy Overall Structure The Nephron Bowman’s Capsule; Proximal/ Distal Tubules; Loop of Henle; Collecting Tube/Duct The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus The Macula Densa; Juxtaglomerular Cells Blood Supply to the Kidney Peritubular Capillaries; The Vasa Recta Exchange Processes within Nephrons Glomerular Filtration Glomerular Filtration Barrier Glomerular Filtration Pressure Glomerular Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure Glomerular Capillary Oncotic Pressure Bowman’s Capsule Hydrostatic Pressure Bowman’s Capsule Oncotic Pressure Net Filtration Pressure Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Quantification of GFR Filtration Fraction Filtered Load 2 Sample Questions 1) Based on the following, what is the net glomerular filtration pressure? P = 70 mmHg Glom PBow = 30 mmHg πGlom= 10 mmHg πBow= 20mmHg GFR = 120 ml/min Filtered load = 125 mg/min Filtration Fraction = 0.25 V = 100 ml/min a) 70 mmHg b) 50 mmHg c) 40 mmHg d) 16 mmHg e) 30 mmHg 2) Based on the following information, calculate the 1) the filtration fraction (i.e., of plasma) and 2) and the filtered load of glucose. Plasma flow to the kidneys = 500 ml/min The volume of plasma filtered at the kidneys = 200 ml/min [glucose]plasma2 mg/ml a) Filtration fraction = 0.4; Filtered load of glucose = 400 mg/min. b) Filtration fraction = 0.4; Filtered load of glucose = 1000 mg/min. c) Filtration fraction = 0.4; Filtered load of glucose = 600 mg/min. d) Filtration fraction = 0.2; Filtered load of glucose = 0.4 mg/ml. e) Filtration fraction = 2.5; Filtered load of glucose = 5.0 mg/ml. 3) Which of the following factors is involved in the regulation of glomerular filtration? a) Myogenic regulation of vascular smooth muscle around the efferent glomerular arteriole. b) Release of paracrine substances from the juxtaglomerular cells. c) Mesangial cell diapedesis. d) Contraction/relaxation of vascular smooth muscle around the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. e) Insertion of aquaporin into Bowman’s capsule. 3 + + Lecture 17: Exchange Process Continued, Micturition and Ion (Na ; K ) Regulation Topics Exchange Processes within Nephrons Glomerular Filtration Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Quantification of GFR Factors Affecting GFR Myogenic Regulation Tubular Glomerular Feedback Mesangial Cell Contraction Tubular Reabsorption Quantities of Reabsorbed Substances Passive Reabsorption Active Transport and Facilitated Diffusion Tubular Secretion Excretion Micturition Micturition Reflex Sodium Reabsorption In the Proximal Tubule Anatomical Features Designed to Facilitate Reabsorption Mechanisms and Overall Results In the Distal Tubule Mechanisms and Overall Results Potassium Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule Potassium Secretion in the Distal Tubule Aldosterone Regulation of Na Reabsorption and K Secretion in the Distal Tubule The Renin-Angiotensin System Angiotensinogen; Renin; Angiotensin I; Angiotensin Converting Enzyme; Angiotensin II Factors Stimulating Angiotensin Release The Effects of Angiotensin II Vasoconstriction Aldosterone Release Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Release Stimulation of Thirst Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) Release of ANP Effects of ANP Increase GFR + Decrease Na Channel Opening Decrease Renin Release 4 Sample Questions 1) Which of the following is not involved in potassium reabsorption from the proximal tubule? a) A K channel on the apical membrane b) A K channel on the basolateral membrane c) Aldosterone d) A and C e) B and C 2) Which of the following statements is false? a) Both aldosterone and ANP increase sodium reabsorption. +
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