PSYa02 - CH 14 - NOTES.docx

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Biological Sciences
Steve Joordens

CH 14: Personality PSYA02 1 Trait Theories of Personality • Personality is a particular pattern of behavior and thinking and determines how we act or react in a variety of situations. • Humoural Theory (by Galen): earliest theory to explain individual differences in personality. (Body contains 4 humours) o Choleric ppl – excess yellow – bad tempered/irritable. o Melancholic ppl – excess black – gloomy/pessimistic. o Phlegmatic ppl – excess phlegm- sluggish/calm/unexcitable. o Sanguine ppl – excess blood – passionate/cheerful • Personality types – different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors (developmental exp for eg) o This is an obviously rejected theory, today we conceive of individual differences personality as being in degree, not kind. • Personality trait – enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behavior in different situations. o Ppl vary in the extent to which they are one or the other (analogous to a personality trait) o Traits have both biological and learning outside of body. Dynamic organization – integrated and unified whole, we have a sense of having a unified experience. • organization occurs within the individual. • Exists in terms of psychophysical systems (brain) • These systems determine(implying cause and effect) • Personality has causal impact on our behaviour – knowing somebody’s personality has an EXPLANATORY power to it. • Personality helps us makes adaptations to CH 14: Personality PSYA02 2 world around us. • Allport (Important in Personality Traits) o Believed that people react the same in all situations  Cardinal Traits – rare, but strong unifying influence on person’s behavior. (eg. Hitler)  Central Traits – less singular than cardinal (eg. Honest, warm) used to distinguish from others.  Secondary Traits – minor influence in behavior (eg. freq to change jobs) • He believes “we only know how to explain a person’s personality once we can describe it!” • Cattell (16 Personality factors) o Used Allports information to bring Allports 18 000 trait words into 171 adjectives (using factor analysis) o He referred his 16 PF as source traits, to which personality was built. • Eysenck (3 Factors) of bipolar dimensions. (ENP) o Extroversion – outgoing nature (opp to introversion) – requires more external stimulation than introvert to maintain optimum arousal.  Introversion – shy, reserved, careful (opp to extroversion) – requires little to maintain his lower arousal lvl. o Neuroticism – always tense, worrying, moody and unstable (opp to emotional stability) o Psychoticism – aggressive, anti social, egocentric (opp of self control) • 5 Factor Model (P is composed of 5 primary dimensions) o the original 3 were Neuro,Extra(big two) and Openness. CH 14: Personality PSYA02 3 o Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness. o They are measured by the NEO-PI-R (Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness Personality Inventory) R standing for revised.  Reliability: alphas from .87 to .92, N = 1,539.  Validity: self-peer r’s from .36 to .53, N = 250.  Consists of 240 items to describe a person.  McCrae, Costa, and Busch performed Factor Analysis on a list of adjectives contained in a test called the California Q-Set – resulting in the same 5 factors. PSYCHOBIO APPROACHES • Identical twins correlate more than fraternal twins in terms of personality measures. • Heredity is responsible for b/w 50-70 % of variability in these 3 personality traits. The remaining % is caused by diff in environment. • Identical twins were much more likely to have experienced similar family environments. • Heredity plays a large role in determining the nature of environment P458 to p460 needs reading again. Social Learning Approach Social Learning Theory – personality is determined by consequences of behavior and the beliefs of those consequences. Skinner believed that personality was determined by consequences. Expectancy – specific action leads to a specific consequence. Yet consequences can change depending on when the action is dealt. (aggressiveness to get a toy, but do this in front of your parents and you get into trouble). Observational Learning – a derivative to expectancy - allows ppl to learn actions vicariously (not directly re-inforced). For eg. watching your mom put on deodorant, and then mimicking them. CH 14: Personality PSYA02 4 *More complex behaviours = more times it needs to be observed/executed = more practice = learn it well. Reciprocal Determinism – idea that personal variables (cognitive, expectations etc), behavior and environment interact with each other in determining one’s personality. Self-Efficacy – how well you can perform a task – related to optimism and pessimism – optimists have better chances of performing a task even when the circumstances don’t look too successful. Person Variables – favoured by Mischel – 5 of them – 1) Competancies – reinforced skills + behaviours will be likely engaged in future. 2) Encoding Strats and Personal Construct – we process info differently than others – therefore we perceive situations differently than others. 3) Expectancies – one action to one expectancy of our behavior 4) Subjective Values – degree to which we value certain reinforcers (seek most value) 5) Self-Regulatory Systems and Plans – to achieve our goals we monitor ourselves by reinforcement and punishment. Locus of Control – belief that consequences are controlled by person variables External Locus = events in life are determined by envi variables. Internal Locus = events in life determined by their own variables. The I-E Scale measures locus of control (0-23) Low score=Internal, High Score=External Evaluating Scientific Issues • Mischel’s beliefs – situations, not traits, best predict behavior. Eg. comparing introversion/extroversion when events are party vs. funeral. • Many disagreed – some situations are weak to determine ppl’s behavior • CAPS Approach (Cognitive-Affective Processing System) look at powerpoint PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH CH 14: Personality PSYA02 5 A term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience. • Freud and Breuer called the release of energy to relief the original experiences a catharsis • Freud concluded all behavior is motivated by instinctual drives, when activated, supply psychic energy. Failure to release this can cause the person to express the emotion neurotically – with excessive anxiety. In this stage you are in the unconscious – (inaccessible part of mind) Eg. Somebody has died and you want to deny this. • He also believed that we are constantly trying to prevent unconscious memories of traumatic events from reaching conscious awareness. Structures of Mind (Id + Ego + SuperEgo) • Id = present at birth – most primitive – houses the Libido – the basic energy of the mind – drives all mental operations and behaviours. Any life sustaining need satisfying or pleasure oriented urge • Follows only the Pleasure Principle rule – engage in anything pleasurable right away • Ego = 2 3 year of life – executive of mind/personality – constrains the Id to reality.(reality principle). Aka the mediator- compromises between the Id and Superego • SuperEgo = 5 year of life – internalized morality – stands up to law’s principle and represents society • Id and Superego are both NOT tied to reality. When making a decision, conflict always arises between the Id and Superego. • Conflict leads to anxiety – the sense that the Ego is losing control of things between Id and Superego. • 3 Types of Anxiety are 1)Realistic (gun to your face), 2)Neurotic (conflicting Id and Ego), and 3)Moral Anxiety (conflicting ego and SuperEgo). • Conscience = internalization of rules and restrictions of society. • Ego Ideal = internalization of what society values and what person will strive to get. CH 14: Personality PSYA02 6 • Internalized Prohibitions = rules to protect one from guilt he would feel if instinctual drives were allowed to express themselves. • Compromise formation – between demands of Id and suppressive Superego. (Great course – I’d like to break your hand! , other egs are Freudian slips, and dreams) 1) In dreams the actual storyline (manifest content) is disguised by the hidden message (latent content, made by unconscious • Free Association – Freud’s method in which individual is asked to relax, clear mind and report on any images or thoughts that come to mind. – helps with therapy. • Defence Mechanisms respond to experiences of anxiety. • 1 line of defence = Repression (mentally keeping anxiety-provoking events out of conscious aka intentional forgetting) nd • 2 line of defense = Auxiliary Defense 1) Denial (least sophisticated) 2) Projection –taking something that pisses you off and projecting it onto something else – this contradicts with SuperEgo in terms of morals. 3) Sublimation – redirecting pleasure seeking/aggressive instincts towards socially acceptable goals. When successful, eg. sexual desire  drawing, this is an example of sublimated neurotic energy. 4) Rationalization (textbook) = justifies an unacc
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