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Lecture 4

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 4 Notes.docx

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Biological Sciences
Karen Williams

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 4 Notes: Value of Biodiversity II Indirect vs. direct use value o Siphium  the plant that was used in North Africa by the Greeks as birth control = direct use value for us o Stunted rice cultivation by the virus found species that was resistance = direct use value for us o Direct value usually means one species for one purpose o Indirect use is usually 2 or more species that interact with each other in an ecosystem and they are useful to us o Trees’ roots filter the water and keep flooding from occurring  more than one species of trees (community of trees) has the beneficial effect to us humans o We need healthy soil to grow food sustainably  soil contains millions of organisms (community) so indirect benefit to us E.O Wilson  why strip the forest and build a water filtration facility that costs a million dollars to operate, than just let the forest sit there, for free?! II.Provisioning: food o Largest managed pollination event  1 million behives used to pollinate Californian almond orchards o The bees travel very long distances to be brough to the necessary locations where their services are needed o Some of the most valuable fruits, veggies, nuts and field crops depends on insect pollinators, particularly honeybees o Besides insects, other means of pollination include birds, wind and rainwater o o almonds are 100% pollinated by bees o apples and blueberries are 90% pollinated by bees o peanuts and strawberries are only 2% pollinated by bees o grapes are 1% pollinated by bees o honey bees = scarcity issues! o Long term declines of honey bees due to diseases and pesticides o o year to year volatility o colony collapse disorder (CCD)  started in the early 2000s, bees never returned in the spring time o 2013 is another year where there were major loss of colonies from winter going into spring Possible causes of CCD o long transport distance  stress o narrow food choices (not enough needed nutriets), or sometimes even just fed corn syrup which is not good for us nor for bees o pesticides  act like hormones and mess up their homing so they do not fly back to their colony o Virus  Varroa mite – act like ticks (take out juices of young bees and weaken them) Provisioning: pollination by wild bees? o 1988 hurricane  lost of water on ground which acted as breeding grounds for mosquitos o massive spraying of insecticides occurred o no watermelon to be harvest in the areas where insecticides were sprayed 1 o no wild bees = no fertilization of melons = no watermelons o o Graph: honey bees are less efficient than the wild types in pollinating Foraging distances o o our agricultural landscapes do not provide good habitat for the bees  they will only fly in to get food o mating and everything else they will do in natural habitats o so how far can these bees fly then? o Bigger bees can fly further than smaller bees o From the graph, you can extrapolate how far away these fields should be from their natural homes o For example: fields that would be expected to be pollinated by honeybees should be within about 1000m of their natural habitat o o the more bee species servicing in an are the higher the pollen deposition per flower o o increase in habitat bee friendliness  hedgerows o leave green space with high diversity of plants between farmland (agricultural
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