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Lecture 15

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 15.docx

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Biological Sciences
Karen Williams

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 15: Species and population approach to Conservation Why species and populations?  Species are units of evolution  Evolution occurs at the population level biodiversity  Worldwide: prevention of extinction mostly centered around species  IUCN red list of threatened species  Convention on international trade in endangered species (CITES)  Conservation education: effort to engage public and fundraise Life history characteristics of species as predictors of extinction likelihood Life history characteristics vs. extinction  For carnivores and primates only   Things that makes species prone to extinction  Island status = the more species are found on islands, the greater the extinction rate  Strongest predictor for species being at risk of extinction is geographic range  NS = non significant  So for primates: geographic change, body mass and population density  Carnivores: geographic range, gestation length and trophic level  The – means negative correlation, and the more dots the stronger the correlation Life History characteristics vs. growth rate Life history characteristics vs growth rate Song birds in France Growth No growth Decrease Growth No growth Decrease Omnivores: higher growth rate than granivores Modified from Jiguet et al. 2007. Global Change Biol. 13: 1672-1684  2 . L i f e h i s t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Diet  the more specialized a bird is the more likely it will become extinct  Brood number  the lower the amount of baby birds, the higher the chance the bird will go extinct  Graph 1  the more specialized, the greater the decrease in pop  Thermal maximum  highest temperature wthin the year  The further north a species occurs the greater the chance it will become extinct Life history characteristics vs. extinction  Freshwater and marine fish 1   Overall freshwater fish are about 1 cm in body length  most at risk are also 1 cm  Shape of the curve is about the same as the population that exists (top and bottom left graphs)  So body size is not a good indicator of risk of extinction  For marine fish  the average is at about 0.5 m but the average at risk is greater than that (we like bigger fish) Life history characteristics of species as predictors of extinction likelihood – plants   H = high risk extinction  L = low risk extinction  Who is the pollinator  if plant is highly specialized for a specific pollinator, they have a greater chance of becoming extinct  Low risk = grasses that are wind pollinated because wind is not in short supply  Some plants need seed disperser, example: pine  One species of jay can disperse these seeds = high chance of going exticnt because so specialized  Generalists, like daffodils, whose seeds are wind disperes = very low chance of becoming extinct Sexual Systems I 2   Dioecy = male plants or female plants, so you need a pollinator and at least 2 individuals  Monoecy = on one plant, there are both sexes but still needs an agent (insect or wind) to pick up pollen from the male to the female flower  Hermpahroditism (most) = both female and male sexual function within one flower, so just some wind or proximity of the 2 sexual organs are needed to result in fertilization   Some plants have capability of recognizing that they are being fertilized by their own pollen  some plants do not get fertilized by their own pollen so they are self-incompatible  Both apple and raspberries are hermaphroditic but raspberries can be fertilized with their own pollen = lower rate of extinction Dependence on seeds for reproduction   Trembling aspen produces runner or shoots which develop in their own trees  asexual reproduction = lower risk of extinction  Sugar maple and palms only reproduce sexually (through seeds) so they are at greater risk of extinction Seed bank 3   Bigger seeds have shorter longevity, so if they don’t sprout by next spring they will decay and be lost = higher risk of ext  Smaller seeds, li
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