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Lecture 20

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 20.docx

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Biological Sciences
Karen Williams

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 20: Design of Reserves II Systematic reserve planning  Establish new reserves  Process driven by biodiversity pattern and NOT by remoteness or unproductive nature of area to economy ( history of reserve creation)   In the South, where population pressure is higher the reserves are smaller Realistic base conditions  → Total biodiversity unknown  we don’t know where the bulk of biodiversity is located  → Limited resources  → Competing land use  some land is already spoken for and it is hard to change that  i. Compile data on biodiversity  ii. Identify conservation targets  iii. Review existing conservation areas  iv. Select additional reserves  v. Implement conservation actions  vi. Maintain required values of selected areas Compile data on biodiversity  assement of all biodiversity is not feasible  are there way to use surrogate groups to assess where biodiversity is hidden?  species chosen to represent an environmental cause, such as an ecosystem in need of conservation  These species are chosen for their vulnerability, attractiveness or distinctiveness in order to engender support and acknowledgment from the public at large.  Thus, the concept of a flagship species holds that by giving publicity to a few key species, the support given to those species will successfully leverage conservation of entire ecosystems and all species contained therein  Big flashy, large mammals that we know a lot about – we would hope that where these megafauna occur in high density that would overlap with the areas where the biodiversity is also high  Umbrella species are species selected for making conservation related decisions, typically because protecting these species indirectly protects the many other species that make up the ecological community of its habitat.  Bay checkerspot in grasslands  Piping plower in maritime wetlands  Spotted owles only occur in forests where there is no deforestation  Bengal tiger also likes undisrupted areas  Many butterfly species need species rich Surrogates for overall biodiversity?  Flagship species: charismatic species  Umbrella species: A wide-ranging species whose requirements include those of many other species  Biodiversity indicators: indicators of areas with high species richness  Habitat types: land systems or vegetation classes Flagship/umbrella species approach  Columbia Plateau: 1241 sites and 211 vertebrate species  9 flagship/umbrella species  How well would all species be preserved by preserving all populations of a given charismatic species?  Protect all sites where all 9 flagship/umbrella species occur  Species protected: 50%  Sites required: 40%  Protect all sites where 10 random species occur  Species protected: 40%  Sites required: 12%  Umbrella and flagship species are expensive!  Lower species protected with random species but lower amount of land required  If you had unlimited resources you could buy the necessary land for the species approach but it is not realistic Biodiversity indicator approach  Twin studies: UK (temperate region) and Uganda (tropical rainforest)  Hotspot for 1 taxon = hotspots for all taxa?  UK biodiversity indicators: birds, butterflies and dragonflies; liverworts and aquatic plants   How well does the biodiversity hot spot overlap with the other groups (all other taxa)  You can tell from the maps that the areas of high density do not overlap with one another Biodiversity Indicator approach - Uganda  Uganda: 15 000 km squared of forest reserve  3000 km sq. slated to be strict reserve  How to choose the land?  woody plants  large moths, butterflies  birds  small mammals  correlations of diversity between different taxa    NS = not significant, P< than 0.05 is significant  Woody plants not representative  Large moths and butterflies, and birds  Butterflies and birds 
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