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Lecture 17

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 17.docx

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Biological Sciences
Course Code
Karen Williams

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BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 17: Species and Landscape approach to Conservation What is the difference between MVP vs. PVA?  MVP: best generalized estimate of minimum population size to survive catastrophic events into the future  MVP affected by natural catastrophes, genetic factors, environmental uncertainty, demographic stochasticity  It is a rough estimate  8500 individuals for one species to survive, can estimate that for another species, with similar needs, a similar number of individuals would be required in order for the species to survive  PVA: fate of a population or species over a specified time period based on the growth rate assessed  MVP uses past data whereas PVA predicts future Hard to separate different levels   at the landscape level what comes more into play is the heterogeneity of the landscape Landscape approach  landscape approach example: change would need to be made at the whole landscape level (greed shaded area) in order to change something in the delta   most meaningful approach but hardest to implement  countries are fighting over who owns more of Antartica because of resources  something would need to be done at the landscape level because of all the stakeholders What is a landscape?  A mosaic of patches that differ in ecologically important properties  example: high land coniferous forest, middle deciduous forest and lowland swamp 1  Size, shape, and distribution of patches can vary substantially  Patches interact and feed back to one another  Some parts may be shaded and some parts are open  depending on what organism is using this landscape, focus on large scale mosaic or small scale mosaic  The smaller the organism then the smaller its landscape scale  mosaic at different levels Properties of landscape patches  Landscapes through time  landscapes are naturally dynamic  disturbance (can happen on a small scale or large), succession, source-sink dynamics, metapopulation dynamics  important for conservation Tools in landscape approaches to conservation Landscape approach to conservation  accurate mapping of the landscape, its vegetation and human objects  quality, size and distribution of habitat types   airplanes flying over and taking pictures  Then biologists trying to locate different landscape pockets like the different forests and etc.  This is from the 20 century  How to assess composition of landscapes Large-scale resolution, satellite pics 2   Now most of the maps are produced by the use of satellites  You can see how the south is dominanted by different types of agriculture and how the north is dominated by wetlands (boreal forest flloor melting, and increasing methane released) Smaller-scale resolution  Infrared remote sensing  infrared sensors detect infrared radiation emitted differentially from the Earth’s surface  temperature dependent  a map of different temperature then can be translated into different types of vegetation  sometimes the resolution of the resulting map can be so good that you can distinguish even the different species of trees in a forest   mixed forest of pine spruce and birch LIDAR  Light Detection And Ranging (laser technology) 3  Horizontal and vertical plant community structure (canopy structure)  Measures how long it takes for the beams to come back and so the different elevations in the landscape can be reconstructed  3D cross section of the habitat Land cover data managed through GIS  geographic information system (GIS): captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data linked to location  merger of cartography and database technology  important to link remote sensing, land surveying, planning and conservation  Good land cover data = best basis for conservation planning Opportunities and challenges of the landscape approach  Distribution and biology of target species or population  where is it, and how does it use the landscape  Knowledge of habitat needs of target species  Distribution of suitable habitat patches  Successional fate of habitat patches  what disturbance occurs over time  Managerial fate of habitat patches w
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