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Lecture 18

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 18.docx

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Biological Sciences
Karen Williams

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 18: Species and landscape approach II Species and landscape approach to conservation Opportunities and challenges of the landscape approach  Suitability of parks for protected species Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Congo  Largest African tropical forest  Largest pops of Forest elephant, chimps, and gorillas  Species conservation depends on o Distribution and biology of target species or population Species biology, hypotheses   Elephants and gorillas are herbivores so they lake forests with lots of understory (herbacous food plants) Bais  "bais", streams rich with minerals that draw animals and birds to cover their mineral needs  elephants go there to drink water and eat mud in order to get full range of minerals that they need Vegetation use by species? o Non-invasive mapping: Find dung piles for elephants o Habitat transects  record distribution of elephant dung piles o Empty sleep nests for gorillas and chimps o Knowledge of habitat needs of target species Knowledge of habitat needs of target species  Variation of data explained by predictors (100% is the maximum)  Feed the strength of prediction into GIS statistical model to see where the good habitat for the species is  Values closer to 0 means that hypothesis is not helpful, closer to 100 means important  Stratum  what type of vegetation is there  Distribution of suitable habitat patches 1 o Infrared remote sensing  Vegetation maps show land cover data in GIS o Good maps  common tool in landscape approach  Outlines and composition of national parks  made up of different mosaics of vegetation Species biology, data; elephants  Enter coordinates of dung piles into GIS   4 main groups of managed areas Species biology, data; great apes   Chimps prefer old forests (i.e. more fruit) so they prefer the national park but gorillas and elephants have the highest population density outside of the national park Predicted best habitat fir for species  Successional fate of habitat patches Managerial fate of habitat patches  There are different management regimes, each having a different impact on vegetation which is important for these 3 species Implementation of all findings  Implementation = challenge! 2   On-going (low-key) deforestation outside national park  Different needs per species  Need to protect areas outside NNNP  Control of implementation of management plans  Local development and poverty Alternative-futures analysis Impact or risk assessment where:  Two or more alternatives are considered  Alternatives represented spatially  Outcomes of alternatives compared  $$$, water and land used, threat to terrestrial or aquatic life Case studies: Mule Deer  protection of mule deer migration routes  migration of 50-100km between summer and winter ranges  very different habitats  habitats in Wyoming under pressure for hydrocarbon extraction; alternative drilling sites?  Catch 57 adult animals, attach GPS radio collars, record animal movement   picture: migration for a specific time for individual with GPS#53   All the anims = this migration map 3  The black outlines are the sites suggested for hydrogcarbon extraction  2 of them overlap with their winter habitat!!  There are several migration sub-routes that are hard to protect  Minimize interference at major migration routes  Protect stop-over sites (=feeding grounds)  Three-pronged landscape approach o Conserve summering grounds o Conserve wintering grounds o Conserve migration corridors o Its important to know which one of the routes is used by both and protect it o Important to protect the sites where they stop to refuel – feed o To protect the species, both the winter an
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