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ch 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Shadi Dalili

10 Chemical Bonding II 101 Artificial Sweeteners Fooled by Molecular ShapesoTaste and caloric value are independent properties of foodsoCaloric value depends on the amount of energy released when the food is metabolizedoSome artificial sweeteners such as saccharin are not metabolized at allthey pass through the body unchangedhave no caloric valueoTastant fits snuggly into a special pocket on the taste receptor protein called active siteoSimple model to account for molecular shape is valence shell electron pair repulsion VSEPR102 VSEPR The Five Basic ShapesoVSEPR focus on electron groupslone pairs bonding pairs single electronsrepel one another through coulombic forcesoThe repulsions between electron groups on interior atoms of a molecule determine the geometry of the moleculeoThe preferred geometry of a molecule is the one in which the electron groups have the max separation therefore min energy possibleoMolecules having just one interior atom central atom molecular geometry depends on the number of electron groups around the central atom and how many of those electron groups are boning pairs or lone pairsoEach of the following counts as a single electron group a lone pair a single bond a double bond a triple bond a single electronoBond angles can vary from the idealized angles because doubletriple bonds occupy more space than single bondsoLone pairs occupy more space than any type of bonding groups and usually make bond angles smaller than the ideal angle for the particular geometryTwo Electron Groups Linear GeometryoRepulsion between two electron groups can be maximized by their oseparation of 180 bond angle known as a linear geometryoMolecules that form only two single bonds are rare because they do not follow the octet rule but all molecules that have two bonding pairs and no lone pairs have a linear geometry regardless of the type of bondThree Electron Groups Trigonal Planar GeometryooSeparation of three electron groups can be maximized by 120 bond angles in a planeoMolecules with one double bond and two single bonds have larger doublesingle bond angles than a singlesingle bond angle because the double bond contains more electron density than the single bond and therefore exerts a slightly greater repulsion on the single bondsoDifferent types of groups exert different repulsions that is reflected in bond anglesoElectron groups on terminal atoms do not affect geometric arrangement of the moleculeFour Electron Groups Tetrahedral Geometry1
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