CHMA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lewis Acids And Bases, Valence Bond Theory, Egroups

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Chapter 10 November 22, 2010
Review
- Molecular geometry: Different number of Electron groups with different number of lone pairs
(table 10.1, pg 408 :13 possibilities)
- Predicting the shapes around central Atoms: 1 Lewis structures; 2. # of e-groups; 3. # of lone
pairs; 4. Table 10.1
- Representing 3DShapes on a 2D Surface
- 1. Define the plane, 2. Straight line, 3. Solid wedge and hashed wedge
- Molecular Geometry of Multiple Center Atoms
Slide 62: Molecular Polarity
63- Molecular polarity
64- Vector Addition
- From tail to tail
- If more than 2 then first add a and b, find the resultant, then add or subtract the resultant from
c
65- Vector addition
- MEMORIZE THIS CHART
68- Predicting Polarity of Molecules
74- Molecular polarity affects solubility in water
- Intermolecular forces of attraction are stronger
75- Problems with Lewis Theory
- Oxygen is paramagnetic because of its unpaired electrons
76- Valence Bond Theory
82- Hybridization
- The same type of atom can form different types of hybridization
83- Hybrid orbitals
- Usually hydrogen can only form 1 bond
Chemistry Chapter 10- November 24
Slide 85- sp3 hybridization
- H can only form s hybridization
- Use wave function to mathematically find out how to get the hybridizations of the orbitals
- 86- Sp3 is tetrahedral from vespr
- 87- After hybridization you get FOUR sp3 hybrid orbitals
- 88-What is different between the C and N- energy, angle,
- 89- oxygen can form 2 single bonds this is shown in the hybridization because oxygen has 2
lone electrons
- 93- sigma bonds has overlap
- Pi bond is when orbitals are parallel to each other
- Sigma bond is stronger and has higher bond energy than pi bond
- SEE SLIDE 94
- 98- usually sp3 for atoms with 3 electron groups around it
- 99- sp2 comes from 1 s and 2 p’s
- 102- only carbon goes through hybridization not oxygen
- ****103- Double bond is the addition of one sigma bond plus one pi bond ****
- 104- sigma bond is easy to rotate; pi bond is very difficult to rotate
- 106- pi bond = cis and trans
- 107- sp hybridization linear
- We have2 p orbitals left over
Chapter 10- November 26, 2010
- The more bonds that can be formed the more stable the structure
- Review
- Sp3 hybridization: 4e-groups, Formation, and Orbital diagrams
- Types of Bonds: Sigma bond and pi bond
- Sp2 Hybridization: 3 e-groups, Formation, and Orbital diagrams
- Bond Rotation
- Sp Hybridzation: 2 e-groups, formation and orbital diagrams since you have 2 electrons left
over you can use it for pi bonds
- ** how we smell how we see things (photons)
- 110- 2sp is used for sigma bonds and the 2p is used for pi bonds
- Triple bond is considered 1 electron group!!!!
- So the carbon has 2 electron groups and the nitrogen has 2 electron groups
- Triple bond is 1 sigma bond + 2 pi bonds
112- sp3d has 5 orbitals
- Lone pair is an electron group
118- sulphur forms 6 sigma bonds
- Iodine forms 6 sigma bonds with a lone pair or with a double bond (pi bond)
119- table 10.3 pg 430
120- Predicting Hybridization and bonding scheme
122- the textbook says that the end molecule is not hybridized but in reality the oxygen is sp2
hybridization
126- Molecular oxygen is paramagnetic
128- you can add or subtract the wave function depending if there are in the same phase
130- node is the area inbetween the 2 antibonding molecular orbitals where the changes of
electrons there is none or very little
November 29, 2010
Slide 132-
133- Higher bond order is stronger bond
Divide by 2 because there are 2 atoms.
134- bond order of 1 (for the