CHMA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Lone Pair, Hydronium, Lewis Acids And BasesPremium
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CHMA10H3 - Introductory to Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding – Lecture 15: Hydrogen
in Water and in the Atmosphere
Categories of Chemical Reaction in Water
•Acids are electrolytes that form hydronium ions in the ionization reaction with water.
•Bases are compounds that have higher concentrations of hydroxide ions than water as a
consequence o the ionization reaction with water.
•Acids and bases react in aqueous solution by transfer of protons (H+) form the acid to
the base. The reaction is called acid-base neutralization.
•Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes
•Weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes
•Complexation reactions involve bonding to species with lone pairs. Products are
•The analysis of complexation reactions leads to a more general acid-base model called
the Lewis acid-base model.
•The lone pair donor is called a Lewis base or ligand.
•The recipient of the electron pair is called a Lewis acid.
•The product of an acid-base reaction in the Lewis model is called an acid-base adduct.
•Complexation reactions are competition between Lewis bases.
Aquated Metal Ions:
•Complexation reactions of aquated metal ions are the result of competition
between water and other Lewis bases to bond with the metal.
•The concentration of a solute represents the amount of solute in a specified quantity of
•Amount concentration (morality) is the amount of solute per litre of solution:
C = Amount of solute (mcl) / volume of solution (L)
•The concentration of particular species in solution, indicated by the symbol [species]m
may be different from the solute concentration.
Energy from Hydrogen
•Why do we look to hydrogen as a key source of energy? Is it safe to use?
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