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Lecture 15

CHMA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Lone Pair, Hydronium, Lewis Acids And BasesPremium

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Andrew Petter

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CHMA10H3 - Introductory to Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding – Lecture 15: Hydrogen
in Water and in the Atmosphere
Categories of Chemical Reaction in Water
Acid-Base Reactions:
Acids are electrolytes that form hydronium ions in the ionization reaction with water.
Bases are compounds that have higher concentrations of hydroxide ions than water as a
consequence o the ionization reaction with water.
Acids and bases react in aqueous solution by transfer of protons (H+) form the acid to
the base. The reaction is called acid-base neutralization.
Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes
Weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes
Complexation Reactions:
Complexation reactions involve bonding to species with lone pairs. Products are
complex ions.
The analysis of complexation reactions leads to a more general acid-base model called
the Lewis acid-base model.
The lone pair donor is called a Lewis base or ligand.
The recipient of the electron pair is called a Lewis acid.
The product of an acid-base reaction in the Lewis model is called an acid-base adduct.
Complexation reactions are competition between Lewis bases.
Aquated Metal Ions:
Complexation reactions of aquated metal ions are the result of competition
between water and other Lewis bases to bond with the metal.
Solution Concentration:
The concentration of a solute represents the amount of solute in a specified quantity of
Amount concentration (morality) is the amount of solute per litre of solution:
C = Amount of solute (mcl) / volume of solution (L)
The concentration of particular species in solution, indicated by the symbol [species]m
may be different from the solute concentration.
Energy from Hydrogen
Why do we look to hydrogen as a key source of energy? Is it safe to use?
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