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Lecture 1

CITB01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Gentrification, Smart Growth, Infill

City Studies
Course Code
Ahmed Allahwala

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URBAN PLANNING: influencing the process of urban development which is primarily fueled by private developers
Developer's perspective: maximize profit, want your development application to be approved
Community advocacy's perspective: non-profit community based organizations, strive to improve livelihood of marginalized groups
Municipal planner's approach: "the planner": individuals employed to the city that oversee the planning process in municipalities,
planner must figure out if the plan meets intent of city
Approaches to planning:
Everyone has different opinions on what needs to be built and where which leads to conflict
Planners= part of the negotiating process
"historically specific" a commonly accepted practice today may be overthrown in 20-30 years. Dominant ideologies from the 1950s
are not necessarily relevant. The way we see the world changes over time
1950s: No one knew about global warming, carbon footprint BUT that's engrained in today's discussion
Gardiner Expressway: built during the time of the private car, today: there's a problem of congestion, pollution, it cuts thecity off the
waterfront (which is recreational space, space for condo development and the Gardier cuts the city off)
Yorkdale Shopping Centre: during time that everybody has the car, shopping can be done in a decentralized way now b/c of the car
Regent Park: largest public housing complex, when it was built in 1940-50 was to do slum clearance + put all low-income people in
this place, began being labelled as a "ghetto" "crime ridden", just realized that it was wrong to put all the slums in the same place.
Planning in the 50s: to put same people in same place but today, it's about social mixing…combination of different groups of people
to raise overall quality of life
What was commonly expected practice no longer holds true today
This was done in the name of slum clearance and now planners would consult the community as opposed to just doing it
Africville Halifax: entirely African-Canadian community but in the 60s in the name of "slum clearance" evicted the residents of
There are no "Truths" but only temporarily accepted wisdoms
Historical specificity of planning
"urban system" all Canadian cities, their relationship to one another, their economic significance within a broader economy
"intra-urban structure" look at one city and its internal structure, distribution of different land uses, morphology
Two dimensions of urban growth and development
Canada has been occupied that it has been occupied by Natives/indigenous population
Historical development of Canada and see how cities develop in this broader historical context
17th century, arrival of the first European colonizers
The colonial project was tied to exploitation of a particular natural resources
Who was involved in fur trade? Natives with colonial fur traders
High value commodity
Not labour intensive
Population remained relatively small, not many people involved in fur trade
The vessels that were used to ship the fur were relatively small as well which meant that immigrants would not come
back to Canada
Where were the first settlements of the Europeans in Canada: East Coast and then along the St.John River -along the main
Settlements remained small during that time
Harold Innis: Staples Theory, we have to look at fur + fur trade + try to explain how Canada developed during that period
Hudson's Bay Company: Fur Trade (first primary resource that was exploited in Canada)
Mercantile Period (1600-1800)
Production of lumber implies: more labour power required, much bulkier than the fur, required larger vessels, allowed more
people to come from Europe to North America
At that time, there was a big famine in Ireland, higher demands in global market
Intense agricultural expansion, the new immigrants became farmers which then allowed the colony to develop another crucial
staple which is wheat
Lumber became the next dominant export, stopped being fur
Agricultural Expansion (1800-1850)
Confederation in 1867, which was the unification of separate colonies to create Canada
Import tariffs : put disadvantage on American imported and helped emerging Canadian industries
Creation of continental railway: agricultural expansion moved to Alberta, beneficial link of the railway: transport agricultural
products from the west to the east so that they can be shipped out via the Atlantic Ocean
Large scale immigration: needed to grow labour force for industries and agriculture, government launched campaign to get
people to come to Canada
First national policy: (John A McDonald) to protect Canadian industry
Important b/c of which cities grew and which ones did not
Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto and Windsor grew significantly, where most of manufacturing was located
ROC was relegated to hinterland status which means: agricultural production
Ontario and Quebec: Quebec City Windsor Corridor, aka Heartland of Canada
Where did industrial development grow?
Emergence of street car, people could live farther way allowing cities to grow b/c of this new technology
Advances of engineering and construction technology
Canada's Industrialization (1850-1945) the Great Boom
Canadian Urban Development: Past and Present
January 15, 2014
11:04 AM
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Advances of engineering and construction technology
Diversification of urban form: emergence of business buildings, no residental homes
Early suburbanization: richest residents were able to move outward
After the WWII, entered a period of relative stability
$5 a day wage, more money than usual
For the first time in industrialization, the working class was able to purchase the good it produced
Underlying assumption: counter cyclical
Should economy slow down, that's when the state needs to step in and make sure demand stays up
Keynesianism: government controls the economy, government should play an active role in regulating the economy which was
referred to as demand management (subsidized products, minimum wage, social safety programs = allow individuals to
purchase goods)
Ford (the car company) credited with the assembly line (Which achieved efficiency, standardization of production, productivity went
up =mass production and mass consumption)
Mass consumption and it's relation to urban development: encourages suburbanization, the state actively promoted home ownership
through beneficial mortgages, investment in infrastructure
Decline of central business district, emergence of regional shopping malls, d
Fordist-Keynesian Era (1945-1975)
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System of ALL cities, their relative dominance, their relationship to one another
Intra-urban structure: the structure within cities
Can talk about urban system as a whole (all cities) or the specific structure of one specific city
Urban System vs Intra-Urban Structure
Mercantile Period: stables theory (Innis): can understand Canada's development by looking at the dominant staples in a given moment of time.
IN this period, it was fur -> lumber -> wheat -> Canadian industrialization + growth of cities -> Suburbanization
Urban development
Rather than having 200 medium-sized cities, we see a strong dominance of a very small number of core urban areas. Contrast in
urban development between core metropolitan areas and those outside.
GTA or Greater Golden Horseshoe: City of Toronto + 5 adjacent areas.
Greater Montreal: 2nd largest city, Montreal used to be Canada's major city but in 1960's the Quebec Elites were Anglophone
(a minority) but then Francophones + Quiet Revolution. A movement of greater Quebec national consciousness- debate
about whether or not Quebec should separate from the rest of Canada.
Vancouver and the Lower Mainlands
Calgary-Edmonton Corridor
Ottawa- Gatineau
Why are some areas declining in population: lack of jobs (in Northern Quebec and Northern Ontario it was mainly mining and
agriculture which is relatively declining)
5 core urban regions (more than just municipalities. They are broader regions)
Metropolitan Dominance: small number of core urban areas that dominant a given national urban system.
Immigration- they settle in the cities. MTV (Montreal Toronto and Vancouver) syndrome- about 70% settle in these areas- Toronto
being 50%
Immigration: availability of jobs, ethnic networks in these areas, immigrants choose to move to areas with their ethno
cultural networks
Shift to service economy
Globalization, free market ideologies
The state has retreated from supporting industries from active regional development. They stopped providing
Canadian state has weakened, more flow between Canada and the US in terms of capital.
Changing role of state: state is trying to distribute jobs but not as much as it used to.
4 trends that can be looked at in an effort to explain uneven development
The service sector is growing, shift away from manufacturing/agriculture. There are more employed in "service economy". It
provides white collar jobs (lawyers, professors) and low-skill/low-wage (restaurant workers, janitors)
Factors that contribute to uneven development of Canada's urban system? Growing inequality in terms of economic inequality/ diversity
Growing: need to accommodate population growth (infrastructure needs to be proportionate to population it carries. For example,
crowded buses indicates that there is an infrastructure overload, the city grows but infrastructure does not support it =
Declining urban regions: need to worry about how to retain people/ attract businesses, immigrant attraction, economic
What are the specific planning challenges of Canada's growing and declining urban regions?
Dominant trends in Canadian urban system
Last 20-30 years
Planning: about achieving a desirable goal
Grown too fast and there is no system to run the city
City beautiful: how they look
Living conditions: housing reform
Environment: parks movement
There is a certain continuity, some of these concerns are STILL with us today but changed the strategies to
approach these issues
Graph: moves all the way to current time,
Efficiency: city efficient movement: public health/emergency services
Awareness about urban design/public spaces - did not have concern for urban design before
Chicago: became opportunity to test the suggestions, attempt to rebuild city.
Questions of aesthetics were raised at this point
City Beautiful Movement:
Exponential raise of labour workers who ended up living in overcrowded/dangerous conditions
Slum clearance, creating housing for the working class (with better conditions) = requires the state to play a more
active role
People in power did not want the working class to live near them but it is better to diverse the working class so that
they do not start a revolution
This led to the housing reform movement: disperse the working class (out of crammed spaces), Garden City by
Ebenezer Howard (green belts, areas that are off limits for development)
Concern over living conditions:
Did not grow in a planned/orderly fashion which led to concerns: city appearance, living conditions, environment, efficiency (no
efficient infrastructure/emergency services)
Canada's cities grew exponentially in (1850-1945 due to industrialization + growth in manufacturing located primarily in the cities)
Emerged in 19th century industrial city
History of Planning
Lecture 3
January 22, 2014
11:03 AM
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