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4 Pages

City Studies
Course Code
Ahmed Allahwala

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WEEK 2 3 Important shifts in human development: -Neolithic Revolution: Agri revolution, hunter-gatherer times, domestication, division of labor and specialization and more complex social structures. -Urban Revolution -Industrial Revolution i.e. Jericho‟s complex built environment suggests a division of labor MATERIALIST THEORY: analyzing the means if production, technological and physical resources, and social relations 3 elements of social change -Social Division of labor -Hierarchal power structures -Development of a productive surplus URBAN REVOLUTION 10 criteria: 1. Large settlements and high density; 2. Specialization / Advanced division of labor; 3. Significant agricultural surplus; 4. Public architecture; 5. The emergence of a ruling class; 6. The development of script and writing; 7. Predictive sciences (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, calendars); 8. Development of arts and crafts; 9. Long-distance trade; 10. Political organization and state structures. i.e. Ancient Mesopotamia‟s urban space dominated by monumental architecture and there were large presence of religious, political and military ruling class FERTILE CRESCENT: A crescent shaped region found in the Middle East, the land is moist and wet, it is surrounded by the tigris and Euphrates river, also the nile river is extended in this crescent. In addition, the first city, Mesopotamia was founded in this region possibly because of the fertile region. WEEK 3 URBANIZATION: Process of rural moving to urban Urban GROWTH and Urban SIZE=NOT SAME for example Canada is more urbanized but Karachi has a larger population GLOBAL URBANIZATION TRENDS: • Difference between developed and less developed region • Smaller urban population will absorb much of world’s population • Modernizing agriculture (Increasing productivity, less workers_  Contributes to urban growth for core countries  People who can no longer sustain job, move to cities, hence start of INDUSTRAIL revolution • A new urban revolution? For the first time in human history, urban dwellers will outnumber rural populations • However, the process of urbanization is more advanced in the developed world; PROBLEMS with OVERURBANIZATION -Disconnect of population growth correlate with city economy -Labor market and employment, lack of -Housing, not enough -Environment degradation -Governance and planning Lack of -Transportation and infrastructure Lack of i.e. Lagos INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION influenced core regions of develop world in urbanization, i.e. Brittan, labor market growth attracted rural population CONTEMPORARY urbanization occurred decoupled from industrialization WEEK 4: CITIES AND GLOBALIZATION Economically important cities: London, New York, Tokyo Serve as headquarters; financial markets Cities like Milan that aren‟t capitals are important globally because there is strong economic significance SASKIAN SASSENCorporate service complexes are sophisticated networks of high level financiers, i.e. lawyers, accountant…. “End of geography?” -Large franchise domination -Diminishing of SPACE and TIME because of information tech and transportation tech -“Global village” -Location will become irrelevant (Above point ties into this because nearly everywhere in the world one can find familiar franchise, language: English is popular world wide GLOBAL CITIES •Sites of leading global market •Sites for concentration of CORPORA
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