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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
Sheldon Ungar

History: Ancient Medd. World Lecture 2, Week 2 1 • Agricultural rev – 5500 BCE • Urban rev – 3100 BCE - Cuneiform • War between Umma and Lagash: 2500 • Sargon of Akkad unites Mesopotamia: 2240 BCE - Enheduanna, Ziggurat • Reign of Hammurabi: 1792-1750 • Hittite Sack of Babylon: 1600 • Narmer Unifies Egypt: 3000 BCE • Old Kingdom: 2575-2134 - Mastaba, Djoser I: Ca. 2670 • Fist Intermediary Period: 2134-2040 • Middle Kingdom: 2040-1640 • Second Intermediary Period: 1640-1532 - Hyksos • New Kingdom: 1532-1069 - Hatshepsut: 1472-58 - Akhenaten: 1363-1347 “Fertile Crescent” Irrigated by Tigris and Euphrates (Mesopotamia) Mesopotamian agriculture requires organization. Therefore as time went by cities began to develop and organization was possible. Surplus goods were created and therefore trading was possible and many items not naturally found there were brought. (centralized, organized planning authority) Centralized storage capacity History: Ancient Medd. World Lecture 2, Week 2 2 People were given tokens to represent items found within storage houses – pictorial representations of certain crops stuff. Can be treated as money, however were not an official currency. Tokens were pressed into clay to represent large numbers – like bank statements. However later cuneiform was created with practice wedge marks, more easy than using pressed representations within clay. Cuneiform – a system of writing things down, not necessarily a language. ?? Surplus and organization allows for population growth. However expansion leads to conflicts and needs for ideas of other methods of agriculture and etc. War between Lagash and Umma (First real historical event) Cities not secular, many are represented by the deity in which they believe in. Therefore many believe outcomes of battle, for instance, are entirely in the hands of their deity and the gods in general. (Presence of divine authority which decides outcomes of society) Popular material culture of the Mesopotamians: - Stele of the Vultures - The standard of Ur: War (Two faces of a city: at peace, and at war) Prolepsis: (Art) showing events before they have happened. rd Sargon of Akkad: 23 C. BCE (First real historical person) - Slightly suspicious due to: his name, and his life story that seems very mythological (basket dumped in river: common folklore motif) - Unities entire region of Mesopotamia and become king of the first empire within the known world - Founder of Akkad Empire - Also founded a kind of dynasty and preserved that by associating himself with a kind of [divine order] (divine order: prevention of chaos, which results because life is miserable) (bringing order to where there was once chaos) - Appoints daughter (Enheduanna: prolific author to the gods) as major priestess of Inana - General renewal of ziggurats - Achieved economies of scale (able to re-furbish many ziggurats) - Declared himself king of the four winds (known world) - Pitches himself as a guardian of divine order Naram-Sin: 2254-2218 History: Ancient Medd. World Lecture 2, Week 2 3 - Grandson of Sargon - Victory over people in northern regions of Mesopotamia. - Helmet – ‘Horns of men’, symbol of the god of the moon. He adopted the persona by wearing the helmet, declaring himself the human representation of the god. Very different persona
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