CLAA01 Nov. 15
Gaius Marius (157 – 86 BCE)
A „New Man‟ from Arpinium (c. 125 km from Rome)
Tribune of the plebs 119
Holds 7 consulships 107, 104, 103, 102, 101, 100, and 86 BCE
109: Became second in command during a campaign in Africa, under Matillus
107: War with Jugurtha
Marius wanted to go back to Rome to become consul. Matillus didn‟t allow him so
Marius wrote to his friends so that they could campaign for him to become
consul. He became consul in absentia in 107.
Marius changes army recruitment (he needed a larger army than Matillus had)
Allows anyone to fight; offers to buy their weapons, train them, and pays them
The treasurer was supposed to disperse funds within the army while the consul is on
campaign. Marius brought Lucian Cornelius Sulla.
Sulla paid off Jugurtha so that they would give up their city. They did so and
Marius became the „hero‟ even though he did nothing.
104 – 100: War with Teutones and Cimbri
Rome had problems along Northern borders with the German tribes: Teutones and
Cimbri. They kept pushing into Italy.
Consuls are only allowed to be consul twice, after 10 years
Marius convinced Rome that he was the only one that could protect them from
the Germans so they keep electing him.
o The Romans were happy with this as long as Marius stayed out of Rome
and kept fighting.
Rome was not so happy when Marius came back: he brought back all of his
previously homeless people. They were loyal only to him.
o Marius managed to get them their own land out in Italy. This cemented
their support for Marius.
o This worked as a threat of violence and he used it to threaten the Senate.
This threat managed to make the Senate swear allegiance to Marius. CLAA01 Nov. 15
Marius realised that he was soon going to become extremely unliked by Rome, so he
left for the East Before he could be killed.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138 – 78 BCE; dictator 82 – 81)
Quaestor for Marius 107 – 105
Marius wanted to come back and be commander of a war against Mithardides.
The Senate still wasn‟t happy with him so they put Sulla in power. Marius got
vengeance by essentially sacking Sulla from his position, by making a vote within
the Tribune of the Plebs.
o This led to Sulla making a march on Rome
First march on Rome: 88
Rome was unprepared and Sulla was able to conquer the people
They made Sulla commander of the war again.
Sulla manages to make a guild of warriors that are only loyal to Sulla. This is because
he can force the Senate to give them land and he can give them weapons.
This destroys loyalty to the state and gives loyalty to a commander.
This breaks Rome as a city state
Second march on Rome 83 – 82
Marius now marches on Rome and slaughters all that opposes him.
He now, technically (according to the Senate), is the commander of the war
o However, he dies of natural causes
Sulla tries to take over Rome
Makes ally with Pompey (the Great). Sulla casts him as a „saviour of Rome‟ and
he raises a huge army.
They sack Rome again – Sulla becomes dictator
“Dictator for making laws and settling the republic” 82 – 80 BCE
Proscription lists: lists of names that Sulla did not like. These people are now free
range to be killed by anyone in Rome.
o It is estimated that 4700 Romans were killed in this manner CLAA01 Nov. 15
Sulla makes the Senate declare that anything that Sulla has ever done and will
ever do will be considered legal and official.
Sulla‟s Constitutional Reforms
Tribune of the Plebs stripped of power to legislate, making career dead end
10 000 slaves freed and made new citizens
o They become new supporters of Sulla
Senate expanded from 300 – 600
Extends the pomerium (the sacred boundary of Rome)
o The border of right/wrong
o This is only supposed to be done by the mythical kings of Rome – this
means Sulla is casting himself as royalty
Consul 80 BCE
After becoming consul, he retired and earned respect of Rome. “He retired, he‟s
Spartacus (73 – 71 BCE)
Gladiator from Capua
As many as 70 000 – 120 000 slaves join in
This makes a huge army for Spartacus
For two years, they move through Italy unchecked
71, Spartacus and revol