The end of the Roman Republic and the Julio.docx

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Classical Studies
Chris Wallace

CLAA01 Nov. 15 Gaius Marius (157 – 86 BCE) A „New Man‟ from Arpinium (c. 125 km from Rome) Tribune of the plebs 119 Holds 7 consulships 107, 104, 103, 102, 101, 100, and 86 BCE 109: Became second in command during a campaign in Africa, under Matillus 107: War with Jugurtha  Marius wanted to go back to Rome to become consul. Matillus didn‟t allow him so Marius wrote to his friends so that they could campaign for him to become consul. He became consul in absentia in 107. Marius changes army recruitment (he needed a larger army than Matillus had)  Allows anyone to fight; offers to buy their weapons, train them, and pays them The treasurer was supposed to disperse funds within the army while the consul is on campaign. Marius brought Lucian Cornelius Sulla.  Sulla paid off Jugurtha so that they would give up their city. They did so and Marius became the „hero‟ even though he did nothing. 104 – 100: War with Teutones and Cimbri Rome had problems along Northern borders with the German tribes: Teutones and Cimbri. They kept pushing into Italy.  Consuls are only allowed to be consul twice, after 10 years  Marius convinced Rome that he was the only one that could protect them from the Germans so they keep electing him. o The Romans were happy with this as long as Marius stayed out of Rome and kept fighting.  Rome was not so happy when Marius came back: he brought back all of his previously homeless people. They were loyal only to him. o Marius managed to get them their own land out in Italy. This cemented their support for Marius. o This worked as a threat of violence and he used it to threaten the Senate.  This threat managed to make the Senate swear allegiance to Marius. CLAA01 Nov. 15 Marius realised that he was soon going to become extremely unliked by Rome, so he left for the East Before he could be killed. Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138 – 78 BCE; dictator 82 – 81) Quaestor for Marius 107 – 105 Consul 88  Marius wanted to come back and be commander of a war against Mithardides. The Senate still wasn‟t happy with him so they put Sulla in power. Marius got vengeance by essentially sacking Sulla from his position, by making a vote within the Tribune of the Plebs. o This led to Sulla making a march on Rome First march on Rome: 88  Rome was unprepared and Sulla was able to conquer the people  They made Sulla commander of the war again. Sulla manages to make a guild of warriors that are only loyal to Sulla. This is because he can force the Senate to give them land and he can give them weapons.  This destroys loyalty to the state and gives loyalty to a commander.  This breaks Rome as a city state Second march on Rome 83 – 82  Marius now marches on Rome and slaughters all that opposes him.  He now, technically (according to the Senate), is the commander of the war against Mithardides o However, he dies of natural causes Sulla tries to take over Rome  Makes ally with Pompey (the Great). Sulla casts him as a „saviour of Rome‟ and he raises a huge army.  They sack Rome again – Sulla becomes dictator “Dictator for making laws and settling the republic” 82 – 80 BCE  Proscription lists: lists of names that Sulla did not like. These people are now free range to be killed by anyone in Rome. o It is estimated that 4700 Romans were killed in this manner CLAA01 Nov. 15  Sulla makes the Senate declare that anything that Sulla has ever done and will ever do will be considered legal and official. Sulla‟s Constitutional Reforms  Tribune of the Plebs stripped of power to legislate, making career dead end  10 000 slaves freed and made new citizens o They become new supporters of Sulla  Senate expanded from 300 – 600  Extends the pomerium (the sacred boundary of Rome) o The border of right/wrong o This is only supposed to be done by the mythical kings of Rome – this means Sulla is casting himself as royalty Consul 80 BCE  After becoming consul, he retired and earned respect of Rome. “He retired, he‟s so nice!” Spartacus (73 – 71 BCE) Gladiator from Capua  Escapes As many as 70 000 – 120 000 slaves join in  This makes a huge army for Spartacus  For two years, they move through Italy unchecked 71, Spartacus and revol
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